Explain the working of different arteries in the arterial system. 

Difficulty: Hard

The Arterial System:

Functions of pulmonary arteries:

The large pulmonary trunk emerges from the right ventricle and divides into the night and left pulmonary arteries, which carry the deoxygenated blood to the right and the left lungs.

Functions of the aorta:

The oxygenated blood leaving the left ventricle of the heart is carried in a large artery, the aorta. The aorta ascends and forms an aortic arch. The arch curves left and descend interiorly into the body. From the upper surface of the aortic arch, three arteries emerge, which supply blood to the head, shoulders, and arms. As the aorta passes down through the thorax, it becomes the dorsal aorta. The dorsal aorta gives off many branches and the important ones are listed here.

The function of intercostal arteries:

Several intercostal arteries supply blood to the ribs.

The function of celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery:

The celiac artery and the superior mesenteric artery supply blood to the digestive tract.

The function of the hepatic artery:

The hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver.

The function of renal arteries:

Inferior to these are a pair of renal arteries that supply the kidneys.

The function of gonadal arteries:

The gonadal arteries serve the gonads.

The function of inferior mesenteric artery:

Just below the gonadal arteries is the inferior mesenteric artery, which serves a part of the large intestine and rectum.

The function of iliac arteries:

Then the aorta divides into two common iliac arteries, each of which divides into an internal iliac artery, and an external iliac artery. Each external iliac becomes the femoral artery in the upper thigh. It gives branches to the thigh, knee, shank, ankle, and foot.

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