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Astronomers are confident that the star Betelgeuse will eventually consume all the helium in its core and explode in a supernova. They are much less confident, however, about when this will happen, since that depends on internal characteristics of Betelgeuse that are largely unknown. Astrophysicist Sarafina El-Badry Nance and colleagues recently investigated whether acoustic waves in the star could be used to determine internal stellar states but concluded that this method could not sufficiently reveal Betelgeuse's internal characteristics to allow its evolutionary state to be firmly fixed.

Which choice best describes the function of the second sentence in the overall structure of the text?
Difficulty: Hard
A:

It describes a serious limitation of the method used by Nance and colleagues.

B:

It presents the central finding reported by Nance and colleagues.

C:

It identifies the problem that Nance and colleagues attempted to solve but did not.

D:

It explains how the work of Nance and colleagues was received by others in the field.

Former astronaut Ellen Ochoa says that although she ________ doesn't have a definite idea of when it might happen, she that humans will someday need to be able to live in other environments than those found on Earth. This conjecture informs her interest in future research missions to the moon.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

demands

B:

speculates

C:

doubts

D:

establishes

Archeological excavation of Market Street Chinatown, a nineteenth-century Chinese American community in San Jose, California, provided the first evidence that Asian food products were imported to the United States in the 1800s: bones from a freshwater fish species native to Southeast Asia. Jinshanzhuang--Hong Kong-based import/export firms--likely, coordinated the fish's transport from Chinese-operated fisheries in Vietnam and Malaysia to North American markets.
This route reveals the (often overlooked) multinational dimensions of the trade networks linking Chinese diaspora communities.

Which choice best describes the function of the underlined sentence in the text as a whole?
Difficulty: Medium
A:

It explains why efforts to determine the country of origin of the items mentioned in the previous sentence remain inconclusive. 

B:

It provides information that helps support a claim about a discovery's significance that is presented in the following sentence.

C:

It traces the steps that were taken to locate and recover the objects that are described in the previous sentence.

D:

It outlines a hypothesis that additional evidence discussed in the following sentence casts some doubt on.

The following text is from Yann Martel's 2001 novel Life of Pi. The narrator's family owned a zoo when he was a child.

It was a huge zoo, spread over numberless acres, big enough to require a train to explore it, though it seemed to get smaller as 1 grew older, train included.

As used in the text, what does the word "spread" most nearly mean?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

Hidden

B:

Discussed

C:

Extended

D:

Coated

Dance choreographer Jawole Willa Jo Zollar aims to give people the opportunity to be ________ her creative process. For example, live performances of her dance HairStories, which debuted in 2001, featured videos of people across the United States talking about their hair and audience members sharing pictures of their interesting hairstyles.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

nervous about

B:

completed by

C:

delayed by

D:

involved in

Seminole/Muscogee director Sterlin Harjo _________ television's tendency to situate Native characters in the distant pasta: this rejection is evident in his series Reservation Dogs, which revolves around teenagers who dress in contemporary styles and whose dialogue is faced with current slang.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Hard
A:

repudiates

B:

proclaims

C:

foretells

D:

recants

A musician and member of the Quechua of Peru, Renata Flores Rivera was eager to promote the Quechua language in her music, but she was ________ speaking it. She met this challenge by asking her grandmother, a native speaker of Quechua, to help her pronounce words in her song lyrics and also by taking classes in the language.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

prepared for

B:

inexperienced with

C:

skilled in

D:

excited about

Early in the Great Migration of 1910-1970, which involved the mass migration of Black people from the southern to the northern United States, political activist and Chicago Defender writer Fannie Barrier Williams was instrumental in helping other Black women establish themselves in the North. Many women hoped for better employment opportunities in the North because, in the South, they faced much competition for domestic employment and men tended to get agricultural work. To aid with this transition, Barrier Williams helped secure job placement in the North for many women before they even began their journey.

Which choice best states the main purpose of the text?
Difficulty: Medium
A:

To introduce and illustrate Barrier Williams's integral role in supporting other Black women as their circumstances changed during part of the Great Migration

B:

To establish that Barrier Williams used her professional connections to arrange employment for other Black women, including jobs with the _Chicago Defender_

C:

To demonstrate that the factors that motivated the start of the Great Migration were different for Black women than they were for Black men

D:

To provide an overview of the employment challenges faced by Black women in the agricultural and domestic spheres in the southern United States

Studying late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century artifacts from an agricultural and domestic site in Texas, archaeological Ayana O. Flewellen found that Black women employed as farm workers utilized hook-and-eye closures to fasten their clothes at the waist, giving themselves a silhouette similar to the one that was popular in contemporary fashion and typically achieved through more restrictive garments such as corsets. Flewellen argues that this sartorial practice shows that these women balanced hegemonic ideals of femininity with the requirements of their physically demanding occupation.

Which choice best states the main purpose of the text?
Difficulty: Hard
A:

To describe an unexpected discovery that altered a researcher's view of how rapidly fashions among Black female farmworkers in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Texas changed during the period

B:

To discuss research that investigated the ways in which Black female farmworkers in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Texas used fashion practices to resist traditional gender ideals

C:

To evaluate a scholarly work that offers explanations for the impact of urban fashion ideals on Black female farmworkers in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Texas

D:

To summarize the findings of a study that explored factors influencing a fashion practice among Black female farmworkers in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Texas

The following text is adapted from Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1844 short story "Drowne's Wooden Image." Drowne, a young man, is carving a wooden figure to decorate the front of a ship.

Day by day, the work assumed greater precision, and settled its irregular and misty outline into distincter grace and beauty. The general design was now obvious to the common eye.

As used in the text, what does the word "assumed" most nearly mean?
Difficulty: Medium
A:

Acquired

B:

Acknowledged

C:

Imitated

D:

Speculated

According to botanists, a vibrurn plant experiencing insect damage may develop erineum--a discolored, felty growth--on its leaf blades. A _______ viburnum plant, on the other hand, will have leaves with smooth surfaces and uniformly green coloration.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

struggling

B:

beneficial

C:

simple

D:

healthy

The following text is from Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula. The narrator is being driven in a carriage through a remote region at night.

 

The baying of the wolves sounded nearer and nearer, as though they were closing round on us from every side. I grew dreadfully afraid, and the horses shared my fear. The driver, however, was not in the least disturbed; he kept turning his head to left and right, but I could not see anything through the darkness.

 

As used in the text, what does the word "disturbed" most nearly mean?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

Disorganized

B:

Alarmed

C:

Offended

D:

Interrupted

During a 2014 archaeological dig in Spain, Vicente Lull and his team uncovered the skeleton of a woman from El Algar, an Early Bronze Age society, buried with valuable objects signaling a high position of power. This finding may persuaded researchers who have argued that Bronze Age societies were ruled by men to ________ that women may have also held leadership roles.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Medium
A:

waive

B:

concede

C:

refute

D:

require

Text 1

In 1916, H. Dugdale Sykes disputed claims that The Two Noble Kinsmen was coauthored by William Shakespeare and John Fletcher. Sykes felt Fletcher's contributions to the play were obvious--Fletcher had a distinct style in his other plays, so much so that lines with that style were considered sufficient evidence of Fletcher's authorship. But for the lines not deemed to be by Fletcher, Sykes felt that their depiction of women indicated that their author was not Shakespeare but Philip Massinger.

Text 2

Scholars have accepted The Two Noble Kinsmen as coauthored by Shakespeare since the 1970s: it appears in all major one-volume editions of Shakespeare's complete works. Though scholars disagree about who wrote what exactly, it is generally held that on the basis of style, Shakespeare wrote all of the first act and most of the last, while John Fletcher authored most of the three middle acts.

Based on the texts, both Sykes in Text 1 and the scholars in Text 2 would most likely agree with which statement?
Difficulty: Hard
A:

John Fletcher's writing has a unique, readily identifiable style.

B:

The women characters in John Fletcher's plays are similar to the women characters in Philip Massinger's plays.

C:

_The Two Noble Kinsmen_ belongs in one-volume compilations of Shakespeare's complete plays.

D:

Philip Massinger's style in the first and last acts of _The Two Noble Kinsmen_ is an homage to Shakespeare's style.

Text 1

Public policy researcher Anthony Fowler studied the history of elections in Australia, a country that requires citizens to vote. Fowler argues that requiring citizens to vote leads to a significant increase in voters who would otherwise not have the time or motivation to vote. Thus, election results in countries that require citizens to vote better reflect the preferences of the country as a whole.

Text 2

Governments in democratic countries function better when more people vote. However, forcing people to vote may have negative consequences. Shane P. Singh and Jason Roy studied what happens when a country requires its citizens to vote. They found that when people feel forced to vote, they tend to spend less time looking for information about their choices when voting. As a result, votes from these voters may not reflect their actual preferences.

Based on the texts, how would Singh and Roy (Text 2) most likely respond to the research discussed in Text 1?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

Only countries of a certain population size should implement mandatory voting.

B:

People who are forced to vote are likely to become politically engaged in other ways, such as volunteering or running for office.

C:

Requiring people to vote does not necessarily lead to election outcomes that better represent the preferences of the country as a whole.

D:

Countries that require voting must also make the process of voting easier for their citizens.

The following text is from Srimati Svarna Kumari Devi's 1894 novel The Fatal Garland (translated by A. Christina Albersin 1910). Shakti is walking near a riverbank that she visited frequently during her childhood.

 

She crossed the woods she knew so well. The trees seemed to extend their branches like welcoming arms. They greeted her as an old friend. Soon she reached the river-side.

 

Which choice best describes the function of the underlined portion in the text as a whole?
Difficulty: Easy
A:

It suggests that Shakti feels uncomfortable near the river.

B:

It indicates that Shakti has lost her sense of direction in the woods.

C:

It emphasizes Shakti's sense of belonging in the landscape.

D:

It conveys Shakti's appreciation for her long-term friendships.

Economist Marco Castillo and colleagues showed that nuisance costs--the time and effort people must spend to make donations--reduce charitable giving. Charities can mitigate this effect by compensating donors for nuisance costs, but those costs, though variable, are largely _________ donation size, so charities that compensate donors will likely favor attracting a few large donors over many small donors.

Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?
Difficulty: Hard
A:

supplemental to

B:

predictive of

C:

independent of

D:

subsumed in

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