### Table of Contents

Definition

**Atomic Physics:**

The branch of Physics that deals with the study of the structure and properties of atoms

Definition

**Axis of rotation:**

A straight line passing through the points of a rotating rigid body while the other points of the body move in circles about the axis.

Definition

**Base quantity**

A quantity which can be expressed independently without the reference of any other quantity.

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Definition

**Coefficient of linear expansion:**

Change in unit length caused by unit kelvin change in temperature.

Definition

**Centrifugal force: **

According to Newton's third law of motion, there exists a reaction to the centripetal force. The centripetal reaction that pulls the string outward is sometimes called the centrifugal force.

Definition

**Centripetal force: **

The force which keeps the body moving in a circular path is called the centripetal force and is given by:

$F_{c}=\frac{mv^{2}}{r}$

Definition

**Circular motion: **

The motion of a body moving along a circular path is called circular motion.

Definition

**Coefficient of volume expansion**

Change in unit volume caused by unit kelvin change in temperature.

Definition

**Convection:**

Transfer of heat by actual movement of molecules from a hot place to a cold place is known as convection.

Definition

**Couple:**

When two equal and unlike parallel forces act at different points of a body they constitute a couple.

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Definition

**Density:**

Density is the ratio of mass to volume of a substance. The density of water is

$1000 kgm^{-3}$.

Definition

**Efficiency:**

The ratio of the useful work done by a device or machine to the total energy taken up by it is called its efficiency.

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Definition

**Elasticity: **

The property of matter by which matter resists any force which tries to change its length, shape, or volume is called elasticity.

Definition

**Electromagnetism:**

The branch of physics deals with the study of the charges at rest and in motion, their effects, and their relationship with magnetism.

Definition

**Force of gravitation:**

The force due to which everybody in the universe attracts every other body.

Definition

**Evaporation:**

The changing of a liquid into vapors from the surface of the liquid without heating it.

Definition

**Field force:**

The gravitational pull of the Earth acts on the body whether the body is in contact with the Earth or not.

Definition

**Force of gravitation:**

The force due to which everybody in the universe attracts every other body.

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Definition

**Geophysics:**

The branch of physics deals with the study of the internal structure of the Erath and tectonic plate motions etc.

Definition

**Gravitational field:**

The field is a region in space in which a particle would experience a gravitational force.

Definition

**Gravitational potential energy: **

Energy of a body due to its position in the gravitatinal field.

Definition

**Heat capacity:**

The quantity of thermal energy absorbed by a body for increase in its temperature.

Definition

**Heat:**

The branch of physics deals with the nature of heat modes of transfer of heat and effects of heat.

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Definition

**Internal energy:**

The sum of K.E and P.E is associated with the atoms, molecules, and particles of a body.

Definition

**Joule:**

The amount of work done when a force of one newton displaces a body through one meter in the direction of the force.

Definition

**Kinematics:**

Study of motion of bodies without taking into consideration the mass and forces.

Definition

**Latent heat of fusion:**

The heat required by a unit mass of a substance at its melting point to change it from a solid state to a liquid state is called the latent heat of fusion.

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Definition

**Latent heat of vaporization:**

The quantity of heat required by the unit mass of a liquid at a certain constant temperature to change its state completely from a liquid into a gas is called the latent heat of vaporization.

Definition

**Light:**

The branch of physics deals with the physical aspects of light and its properties: working and uses of optical instruments.

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Definition

**Mass:**

The characteristic of a body determines the acceleration produced by the application of a force.

Definition

**Mechanics:**

The branch of physics deals with the motion of objects, causes, and effects of motion.

Definition

**Moment arm:**

The perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of action of the force.

Definition

**Negative vector:**

A vector which has the same magnitude but opposite direction of another vector.

Definition

**Neutral equilibrium:**

The condition of a body in which its center of gravity neither rises nor becomes lower than its original position after being disturbed.

Definition

**Nuclear physics:**

The branch of physics deals with the [properties and behavior of nuclei and the particles within the nuclei.

Definition

**Orbital velocity:**

The critical velocity of a satellite to keep on moving around the Earth at a specific height.

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Definition

**Perpendicular components:**

The components of a force are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Definition

**Plasma Physics:**

The branch of physics deals with the study of production, and properties of the ionic state of the matter-the fourth state of matter.

Definition

**Physics:**

Physics is a branch of science that deals with matter, energy and their relationship.

Definition

**Prefixes:**

The words or letters added before a unit and stand for the multiples or sub-multiples of that unit are known as prefixes. For example, kilo, mega, million, micro, etc.

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Definition

**Pressure:**

Pressure is the normal force acting per unit area. Its SI unit is $Nm ^{-2}$ or pascal (Pa).

Definition

**Radiation:**

Transfer of heat by infra-red radiators requires no medium for their transmission.

Definition

**Rolling Friction: **

Rolling friction is the force of friction between a rolling body and a surface over which it rolls. Rolling friction is lesser than the sliding friction.

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Definition

**Scalars**

Physical quantities which are described by their magnitude only are known as scalars.

Definition

**Scientific notation:**

The numbers are written as power or prefix of ten in which there is only one non-zero number before the decimal.

Definition

**Significant figures**:

All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are called significant figures. It reflects the precision of a measured value of a physical quantity.

Definition

**Specific heat capacity:**

The quantity of heat changes the temperature of one kilogram of mass by 1 K.

Definition

**stability:**

The property of a body that does not undergo any change without the application of an external agency.

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Definition

**Stable Equilibrium:**

The condition of a body in which it comes to its original position after being disturbed.

Definition

**Static friction:**

The force of friction arises due to an applied external force before motion.

Definition

**Tensile strain: **

The ratio of change of length to the original length is called tensile strain.

Definition

**Thermal conductivity: **

The rate of flow of heat across the opposite faces of a meter cube maintained at a difference of 1 K is called the thermal conductivity of the material of the cube.

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Definition

**Thermal equilibrium**

The property of a system is when all parts of the system have the same temperature along with its surrounding.

Definition

**Uniform acceleration: **

A body has uniform acceleration if it has equal chances in its velocity in equal intervals of time, however small the interval may be.

Definition

**Uniform speed: **

If the speed of a body does not change with time then its speed is uniform.

Definition

**Uniform velocity: **

If a body covers equal displacements in equal intervals of time, however small the interval may be, then its velocity is said to be uniform.

Definition

**Unlike parallel forces:**

Forces that are parallel but have direction opposite to each other.

Definition

**Unstable equilibrium: **

If a body does not return to its previous position when set free after a slight tilt is said to be in unstable equilibrium.

Definition

**Vectors: **

Physical quantities which are described by their magnitude and direction are known as vectors.

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Definition

**Velocity: **

We define velocity as the rate of change of displacement or speed in a specific direction.

Definition

** Watt: **

1. The power of a body is one watt which is doing work at the rate of one joule per second.

Definition

**Weight: **

The weight of a body is the force of gravity acting on it. It is a vector quantity. SI unit of weight is Newton (N).

Definition

**Work:**

- Work is said to be done when a force acting on a body moves it in the direction of the force.

- Work = FS
- SI unit of work is the joule (J).

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