Table of Contents
Q1. Write a note on the scope of the Cripps Mission.
Ans: Cripps Mission 1942:
The British Government sent a Mission to the Sub-continent in 1942 headed by Sir Stafford Cripps.
Scope of the Mission:
It tried to unite all the political parties on some points but it failed in its attempt. Cripps did not declare any party responsible for that failure of the Mission, rather he accepted himself the failure. The Muslims had made a demand for Pakistan through Pakistan Resolution. The leaders of the Congress were launching movements against the Government because anticipating the defeat of the British in World War II (1939-1945), it had decided that Japanese would now decide the future of the Sub-continent.
Q2. Write a note on the Reaction of the Political parties on Cripps Mission.
Ans: Muslim League:
Muslim league expressed its satisfaction concerning the protection of the rights of the minorities. After long deliberation, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and All India Muslim League refused to accept the proposals made by Cripps because the demand for Pakistan was not instantaneously accepted in clear words.
Gandhi and his political party All Indian National Congress also rejected the proposals. They disapproved the authority given to the provinces to reject the constitution. Congress was not convinced to accept any ambiguous or unambiguous proposal regarding the partition.
Q3. Write a note on Jinnah-Gandhi Talks 1944.
Ans: Jinnah-Gandhi talks 1944:
Gandhi wrote a letter to Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) in July 1944.
Important Points of Gandhi Letter:
Gandhi wrote: “My heart was asking me to write you a letter. I can meet you when you wish. Don’t think me the enemy of Islam or the Muslims. I am not only the friend and servant of you but the whole world. Don’t Disappoint me.”
Reply of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)
In reply to this letter, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) proposed the meeting in Mumbai in the mid of August. However, the meeting started in September.
Record of viewpoints:
It was decided in the meeting that instead of verbal discussion, it is better to exchange letters so that the record of the viewpoints of both of the parties may be preserved. In this very meeting, Gandhi said clearly that he represented nobody but himself. He said that he was not meeting with Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) as a representative of Congress. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) objected to it and stressed that unless talks are not held between the representatives of the two nations, he could not hope to reach some positive result.
The talks started from the point of Pakistan Resolution based on the Two-Nation Theory. During the talks, Gandhi refused to accept the Two-Nation Theory.
Proposals made by Gandhi:
After having dialogue and Correspondence with Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah), Gandhi said that although he was not a supporter of the Two-Nation Theory, yet if Muslim League wanted to put Lahore Resolution into practical form, this issue should be delayed. First, they should achieve freedom from the British collectively. Afterwards, Congress and Muslim League may settle the issue of Pakistan mutually.
Q4. What do you know about C.R Formula? Write an important point.
Ans: C.R Formula 1944:
When the British Government crushed the “Quit India” movement launched by Gandhi forcefully and put Gandhi behind the bars, his movement died out. Now, Gandhi tried to weaken the Muslim League by trapping Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) in a conspiracy. Gandhi used Chakravarti Raj Gopal Acharia and asked him to express an opinion about the partition of India.
Chakravarti Raj Gopal Acharia:
Chakravarti Raj Gopal was a leader of All Indian National Congress. He belonged to Madras. He was known in the public as Raja Gee. Raj Gopal Acharia and Gandhi finalized the Formula in March 1944. This formula is known as “C.R Formula”.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and Gandhi Correspondence:
In the meantime, correspondence between Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and Gandhi, who was in jail continued. The Formula was sent to Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) was informed of the details of the Formula on April 8, 1944.
Salient Features of C.R. Formula:
The main points of C.R Formula were as under:
- This Formula is the basis of an agreement between Congress and the Muslim League. Gandhi and Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) will agree on it and they will try to approve it from their respective parties.]
- At the end of the war, a commission would be appointed to demarcate the districts having a Muslim population in the absolute majority and those areas plebiscite would be conducted on basis of all would vote the inhabitants (including the non-Muslims) where adult.
- The League was to endorse the Indian demand for independence and to cooperate with the Congress inthe formation of Provisional Interim Government for a transitional period.
- All parties would be allowed to express their stance on the partition and their views before the plebiscite.
- In the event of separation, a mutual agreement would be entered into for safeguarding essential matters such as defence, communication and commerce and for other essential services.
- The transfer of population, if any would be absolutely voluntarily.
- The terms of the binding will be applicable only in case of full transfer of power by Britain to the Government of India.
Q5. What was the background of the Simla Conference? Write its important points.
Ans: Simla Conference 1945:
After the failure of the Cripps Mission, All Indian National Congress began to pressurize the British Government to finish its rule in India and transfer the powers to the majority party.
Movement of Gandhi:
Gandhi launched “Civil Disobedience” and “Quit India” movements. He asked the people to boycott the courts and offices. Show of power was demonstrated through meetings and processions.
World War II was turning in the favour of the British and its Allies. Seeing the changing circumstances, Congress tried to join Muslim League to increase the pressure Gandhi invited Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) to join the collective struggle but he was intelligent and far-sighted enough to trapped. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) refused to consider any formula other than the creation of Pakistan.
The holding of Simla Conference:
The members of various political parties were invited to participate in the Simla Conference in 1945 to think over the Wavell Plan, Pandit Nehru, Abdul Kalam Azad and Baldev Singh from Congress. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah), Liaquat Ali Khan and Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar from Muslim League, Chief Ministers of all the provinces, representatives of the Unionist and other political parties attended-this conference.
The Viceroy tried to convince Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) to nominate Malik Khizer Hayat, Chief Minister of the Punjab and head of the Unionist Party in place of Abdul Kalam Azad, but Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) was not convinced. He wanted to get it accepted by the Government and Congress that Only Muslim League had the right to represent the Muslims. All the three parties could not agree and the Simla Conference ended up in a failure.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) declared that the Wavell Plan presented in Simla Conference was a collective attempt made by Viceroy and Congress to entrap Muslim League. Had the Muslim League accepted the plan, it would never have succeeded in achieving Pakistan.
Result of Simla Conference:
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) view-point proved to be correct because the results of the election to be held in the coming year (1945-1946) confirmed that the Muslims were with Muslim League only. They rejected Congress, Unionist party and Muslim religious parties by casting their vote in favour of Muslim League, they gave the authority to it fully represent them. The results of the election endorsed the clean and farsightedness of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) and confirmed the truth of his stand-point.
Q6. Write a note on Election Campaign?
Ans: Election Campaign:
All the political parties launched a huge election campaign.
Congress wanted to frustrate the Muslim League at any cost. Its leaders toured the length and breadth of India.
Congress made Elections Alliances with Unionist Party, Ahraar, Jamiat-ul-Ulema-Hind and other Muslim parties took every possible step to create obstacles in the way of the Muslim League.
- On the other hand, since the Elections were life and death issue for the Muslims.
- The leaders of the Muslim League toured the countrywide.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) In spite of his failing health made stormy tours to make the Muslims aware of the need of the hour.
- Muslim League began to gain popularity rapidly. Many a Muslim leader disaffiliated themselves from their political groups and joined the Muslim League.
- Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) in the public meetings challenged the Congress openly and bluntly that Muslim League will prove its demand for Pakistan true in elections and the Muslims of Sub-Continent will not be satisfied until they get Pakistan.
- The Muslims expressed their sentiments enthusiastically. Muslim students also came forward. The groups comprising of Muslim League Workers spread in each corner of the country.
- The atmosphere echoed with the slogans “Ban kay rahay ga Pakistan”, “Lay kay rahain gy Pakistan” and “Pakistan ka Matlab kia, La Ilaaha Illallah”. With every passing day, the stand-point of the Muslim League became stronger.
Q7. Write a note on Muslim League Legislators Convention 1946.
Ans: Muslim League Legislators Convention 1946:
A Convention of elected members of Provincial as well as Central Legislatures elected on the ticket of Muslim League was held on 19 April, 1946 in Delhi, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) presided over the convention. These participants made many argumentative speeches on the situation of the country.
Speech of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)
In his speech, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) said: “No power on earth can prevent us from achieving our goals. We will be successful by virtue us from achieving our goals. We will be successful by hope, courage and force of Faith”. The Resolution was passed unanimously.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) added: “This Convention further emphatically declares that any attempt to impose a constitution on a united India basis or to force any interim arrangement at the Centre contrary to the Muslim League demand will leave the Muslims with no alternative but to resist such imposition by all possible means for their survival and national existence.”
Q8. Describe the talks with different Political Leaders.
Ans: Talks with different Political Leaders:
The members of the Cabinet Mission held talks with different political leaders in the Sub-continent. They exchanged their views with Governors and Chief Ministers. They found the views of Governor-General too. Both major parties, Muslim League and Congress, had clear view-points.
Declaration Muslim League:
Muslim League declared that the only solution to the issues was the partition of the Subcontinent and to the creation of Pakistan. On the other hand, Congress, based on a single nation, strongly opposed any type of partition in South Asia. It negated the Two-Nation theory and denied the idea of Pakistan harshly.
A condition of tension prevailed in the talks because while sending the mission to India.
Statement of British Prime Minister:
The British Prime Minister made a statement in the Parliament that no minority would have the right to exercise the veto power and it will not be allowed to close the path of national development.
The response of Congress:
Congress was much pleased with this statement.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) criticism:
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) criticized it intensely. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) responded that the Muslim League is striving for the protection of the rights of the Muslims and it wants to resolve the constitutional issues based on Two-Nation Theory.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) said:
The Sub-continent is neither a country not it is a homeland of a single nation. The Muslims are a nation with a separate identity that has all the right to decide the future of its own.
Q9. Write a note on the Reaction of the Political parties to the Cabinet Mission.
- Indian National Congress:
As an immediate reaction, the politicians of Congress like the cabinet Mission Plan much. Common members of Congress celebrated in streets and bazaars. Nehru said that Plan had buried the Pakistan of Jinnah.
- Muslim League:
The Members of the Muslim League were frustrated. They thought that there was no mention of Pakistan in the Plan and the demand of the Muslim League was rejected.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) said, “I regret that the Mission should have rejected the Muslim demand for the establishment of a completely sovereign state of Pakistan, which we still hold is the only solution of the constitutional problem of India”.
Final Decision of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah):
Muslim League authorized Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) to make the final decision. Contrary to the expectations of all the circles, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan.
The reaction of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Decision:
This made the Congress nervous. Now the workers of Muslim League seemed to be happy while the workers of congress looked disappointed.
Demand of Quaid-e-Azam for Implementation of Plan:
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) asked the Viceroy and members of the Cabinet Mission to implement the Plan as a whole because a major party i.e. the Muslim League had accepted it.
The Government-backed out of its promise and did not agree to form the Interim Government without Congress. The Government was frightened of the Congress, so it deviated from principles.
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) felt deeply grieved at this breach of promise and he announced direct action. Muslim League declared 16th August, 1946 as direct-Action Day.
Q10. Illustrate the Comparison of Cripps and the Cabinet Mission Plan’s Proposals.
|Proposals of the Cabinet Mission|| Comparative
|1. The sub-continent should be a Union consisting of many provinces and several states. A federation should be formed. The Union should deal with the subjects of Defence, foreign affairs and communication. The Union should have the powers necessary to raise the finances required for the above subjects other than the union subjects shall vest in the provinces.||1. Cripps Mission consisted of only one member whereas there were three members in the Cabinet Mission.
|2.The provinces of India were to form three groups:
Hindi Majority of Madras, Bombay (Mumbai), UP, CP, Bihar and Orissa.
Muslim majority Provinces like Punjab, NWFP (KPK), Sindh
Bengal and Assam it should be a Union of new nature forming Central Organization, Provincial Organization and Group provinces were explained in the proposals of Cabinet Mission but so far as the distribution of powers between Provincial and Group Organizations was concerned, it was said that these will be decided by the Provincial and Group Organizations themselves. The provinces and states will be given seats in the Central Legislature as well as in the cabinet depending upon their population. Keeping in view the proportion of the population, each province will be given representation.
|2.Both the missions had an outline of the states of the future. It was stated in the Cripps Mission that the provinces which would not approve the constitutional authority to establish their independent status whereas, in Cabinet Mission, a clear concept of partition of the sub-continent was presented in the form of Group B and Group C.
|3. The members of the Provincial Assemblies will elect the Central Legislature. The Central Legislature will frame the constitution for the whole of the country. After the Central Constitution is framed, all the three provincial groups will prepare their constitutions.
|3.According to the proposals of Cripps Mission, the Sub-Continent will be under the Crown whereas it was said in the proposals of cabinet Mission that the Sub-continent should be a Union.
|4. An interim Government would be set up immediately. The government will run the system till the constitution is framed. The Interim Government will consist of the representatives of major parties. All the ministers in the Interim Government will be local. No British will be included in the cabinet. The cabinet will have autonomy in administrative affairs. After the Central Constitution is framed, any province could change its group if it thought necessary. Every province would be empowered to join the group of its own choice.||4.After Cripps Mission, Gandhi launched the movements of “Civil” disobedience and “Quit India”, whereas, after the Cabinet Mission, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) appealed the Muslims to observe Right Action Day.|
|5. If one or two provinces from the three groups of provinces decide to separate from the Union, they could do so but after ten years. This point granted the right to the Muslim majority areas of group B and group C to make Pakistan after ten years. Thus, the process of the partition will complete automatically.||5. Cripps Mission declared itself responsible for the failure whereas the Cabinet Mission declared political parties responsible for failure.|
|6. The right to join the Interim Government will be given to only that political party which accepts the proposals.|
Q11. Write a note on the Interim Government 1946-47.
Ans: Interim Government 1946-47:
It was pertinent that Viceroy should have invited the Muslim League to form the Interim Government because the Muslim League had accepted the whole of the Plan. It was stated in the Plan that if any major political party agrees to the Plan, it will be implemented. But this could not be done.
The Viceroy of India invited both All Indian National Congress as well as All India Muslim League to form the Government. He assigned the office of Prime Minister-ship to Pandit Nehru unethically.
The nomination of Ministers:
According to Plan, Congress and Muslim League had to nominate six and five ministers respectively. Congress started to constitute the cabinet. Pandit Nehru invited Muslim League to nominate 5 members. Muslim League was frustrated and annoyed at the breach of promise by the Government. The Viceroy also asked Muslim League to join the Government but Muslim League expressed its grievances. A deadlock appeared.
Dialogue with the Viceroy of India:
It was thought in the Muslim League Council that it should not be the Re-play of the period of the rule of Congress Ministries 1937-39 because it happened so, the Hindus will inflict atrocities and cruelties on the Muslims. Moreover, it seemed that the British were going to quit India, and in these circumstances, if Congress had its monopoly, the Muslims would have to suffer a lot of problems. Despite the cruelties of the Government, it was decided that the invitation of the Viceroy of India should be accepted. It was also decided to send five ministers of the Muslim League in the Interim Government.
After holding dialogue with the Viceroy of India, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) showed his willingness to co-operate with him. Muslim League announced to play its role after joining the Government.
Ministers from Muslim League:
The five ministers from the Muslim League were as under:
- Liaquat Ali Khan
- Abdur Rab Nishtar
- Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
- Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
- Jogendra Nath Mandal
Jogendra Nath Mandal belonged to the Untouchable Caste (Achhoot) of Hindus. Through the nomination of Mandal, Muslim League proved that it was not only playing the role of protector of the rights of the Muslims, but also that of the other minorities too. Congress included a Muslim, Abdul Kalam Azad, in the cabinet and tried to convey the message that it also represented the Muslims.
Ministers from Congress:
The six ministers from Congress were as under:
- Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru
- Rajjinder Parshad
- Sardar Patail
- Gopal Acharia
- Asif Ali
- Jugg Jeevan Ram
Q12. Describe the main points of the 3rd June 1947 Plan:
Ans: The Failure of Lord Wavell:
As Viceroy, Lord Wavell could neither make his plan a success nor Cabinet Mission met with success. To please and gain the favour of Congress, an attempt to implement half of the Cabinet Mission Plan was made i.e. without the grouping of provinces, formation of Interim Government and constitution framing process was started. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) allowed the Muslim League to participate in the Interim Government expediently but he decided to boycott the Legislative Assembly. He wanted to implement the whole of the Plan. Thus, the process of framing the constitution could not be started. Disappointed by the dead-lock, the British Government decided to adopt a new line of action.
Appointment of Lord Mountbatten as a Viceroy:
The British Government replaced Lord Wavell by Lord Mountbatten. In March 1947, he was sent to India as Viceroy when the implementation process of transfer of power was at the last stage. On 20th February, 1947, the British Prime Minister announced that the British rule in the Sub-continent will come to an end by June, 1948.
Negotiations with Political Leaders:
At last, the British Government started its final planning to wind up its power. The British Prime Minister sent Lord Mountbatten to the Sub-continent with clear instructions. Immediately after his arrival, he met important leaders and held negotiations with them. He met Nawabs and Rajas of Princely states.
No solution other than Partition:
Mountbatten realized that no solution other than partition could be found. Now there was the question of establishing the principles of partition. One after another, the leaders of Congress started to think Two-Nation Theory a reality.
Lord Mountbatten and Lady Mountbatten had personal relations with Nehru Family. Other leaders of Congress also considered Mountbatten their sympathetic and affectionate friend.
Plan of Unbalanced and Weak Pakistan:
Considering the partition indispensable, a conspiracy was planned by the Congress in collaboration with Lord Mountbatten to complete the process of partition in such a manner as a truncated, unbalanced and weak Pakistan was made that would be compelled to be a part of India soon.
Framing the Basic Principle of Partition:
Lord Mountbatten, with the help of his staff, started framing the basic principles of partition to determine the boundary lines of both of the centuries. He assured the leaders of the Congress confidentially that the partition process would take place according to their wishes and the conditions laid down by them would be preferred. It was the result of a conspiracy that main leaders of the Congress began to avoid opposing the partition.
Approval of Plan by the British Government:
Lord Mountbatten took the scheme, prepared in secret with Congress, to London for approved by the British Government.
Q13. Narrate the main points about the Implementation of 3rd June 1947 Plan.
Ans: Implementation of 3rd June 1947 Plan:
- Boundary Commission:
Majority of the members of the Provincial Assembly of Punjab voted in favour of Pakistan. It was decided to divide Punjab and the task was assigned to a Boundary Commission. A British Advocate, Sir Radcliff, was appointed the chairman of the commission. Two Muslim judges, Justice Shah Din and Justice Muhammad Munir, and two Non-Muslim judges, Justice Mehr Chand Mahajin and Justice Teja Singh were appointed as representatives of Muslims and Non-Muslims respectively. Sir Radcliff, under the influence of Lord Mountbatten made unjust decisions. District Gurdaspur was a district of Muslim majority, but three of its Tehsils were included in India. The Muslim majority districts of Jalnadher and Ferozepur were also not handed over to Pakistan. Another injustice was done to Pakistan by giving Mudhupur Head Works.
- Un-justice in many Muslim majority areas:
Sir Radcliff was also the chairman of the Boundary Commission constituted for the province of Bengal. Among the Muslim Judges Justice Abu Saleh Muhammad Akram and Justice S.A. Rehman whereas among the Non-Muslim Judges Justice C.C. Baswas and Justice B.A. Mukherjee was appointed to assist Sir Radcliff. While partitioning Bengal into Muslim majority and Non-Muslim majority, injustice, as it was done in Punjab, was done and many Muslim majority areas were given to India. Pakistan was deprived of the Muslim majority districts of Calcutta, Murshadabad and Nadia. Anyhow, the decision was made that the eastern part of the province of Bengal should be included in Pakistan.
A referendum was conducted in NWFP (KPK). The majority of the people decided in favour of Pakistan. All India Muslim League won a historical success. Leaders of the Muslim League, Sirdar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan and Peer manki toured the whole of the province and the results came up to their expectations. Thus N.W.F.P (KPK) became a part of Pakistan. Majority of the members of the Provincial Assembly of Sindh also voted in favour of Pakistan. Thus, Sindh province became a part of Pakistan.
- Tremendous Campaign in favour of Pakistan:
The members of Quetta Municipality and Shahi Jirga decided to join Pakistan unanimously. Qazi Muhammad Issa, Nawab Muhammad Khan Jogezai and Mir Jafer Jamali launched a tremendous campaign in favour of Pakistan. Nawab of Kallat supported Pakistan. Thus, Baluchistan was included in Pakistan.
- A referendum in District Sylhet:
In district Sylhet, a referendum was conducted. Muslim League launched a campaign. Leaders like Moulana Bhashani, Chaudhary Fazl-ul-Qadir and Abdus Saboor Khan worked hard day and night. The people decided in favour of Pakistan. Thus, Sylhet became a part of Pakistan.
- Less Muslims Provinces included in India:
It was decided that the provinces like Assam, U.P, C.P, Madras, Bombay (Mumbai), Bihar and Orissa where Muslims were less in number as compared to the Non-Muslims should be included in India.
Q14. Briefly describe Partition and the Creation of Pakistan 1947.
On 18TH July, 1947, The British Government approved the Indian Independence Act to partition the Sub-continent into two countries. Keeping the Plan of 3rd June, 1947 in view, this act was formulated. According to which two countries, Pakistan and India emerged on the map of the world. It was announced that Pakistan and India would get their freedom on 14th August, 1947 and 15th August, 1947 respectively.
Creation of Pakistan 1947:
With the grace of Almighty Allah and the efforts made by sincere and selfless leader Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah), the dream of Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Rahmatullah) was materialized and despite tremendous oppositions, Pakistan emerged on the map of the world.