Table of Contents

Exercise (Part-1)

 

 

Q1. Four possible options are given for each statement. Mark () on the correct option.

  1. Who presented the Pakistan Resolution?
  • AK Fazl-ul-Haque ✓
  • Allama Iqbal (Rahmatullah)
  • Moulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar
  • Sir Agha Khan

 

  1. When did Sindh Muslim League pass a resolution in favor of partition?
  • 1908
  • 1918
  • 1928
  • 1938 ✓

 

  1. A mission of the British Government came to India in 1942 under the headship of
  • Sir Pathetic Lawrence
  • A.V. Alexander
  • Sir Stafford Cripps ✓
  • Lord Wavell

 

  1. When Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) did present his famous fourteen points?
  • 1909
  • 1919
  • 1929 ✓
  • 1939

 

  1. Who presided over the session of provincial as well as Central Legislature selected on the ticket of Muslim League at Delhi on April 1946?
  • Liaquat Ali khan
  • Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar
  • Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Rahmatullah)
  • Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) ✓

 

  1. When was the Lucknow Pact made between Muslim League and Congress?
  • 1916 ✓
  • 1926
  • 1936
  • 1946

 

  1. How many ministers from the Muslim League were included in the Interim Government 1946?
  • Two
  • Three
  • Four
  • Five ✓

 

  1. When was the Indian Independence Act approved?
  • 14th August, 1947
  • 18th July, 1947 ✓
  • 24th October, 1948
  • 3rd June, 1948

 

  1. In which Annual Session of All India Muslim League was the Pakistan Resolution passed?
  • 1940 ✓
  • 1929
  • 1949
  • 1946

 

  1. The year of Delhi-Muslim proposals is:
  • 1926
  • 1927 ✓
  • 1932
  • 1929

 

  1. World War II broke out in:
  • 1914
  • 1919
  • 1939 ✓
  • 1945

 

  1. When was the Battle of Palasi fought?
  • 1557
  • 1657
  • 1757 ✓
  • 1857

 

  1. When did the Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) join the Muslim League?
  • 1914
  • 1913 ✓
  • 1916
  • 1919

 

  1. How many Princely States were there in the Sub-Continent when the partition of India took place?
  • 605
  • 615
  • 625
  • 635 ✓

 

Ans:

i.              A ii.             D iii.            C iv.           C v.            D
vi.           A vii.          D viii.         B ix.            A x.             B
xi.            C xii.           C xiii.          B xiv.         D  

 

 

 

Q2. Match the Column “A” with the Column “B”.

             Column A         Column B
Simla Conference                 1942
Rowlatt Act                 1946
Cripps Mission                 1944
Cabinet Mission Plan                 1919
Jinnah-Gandhi Talks                 1945

 

Ans:

         Column A           Column B
Simla Conference                    1945
Rowlatt Act                    1919
Cripps Mission                     1942
Cabinet Mission Plan                     1946
Jinnah Gandhi Talks                      1944

 

 

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Q3. Fill in the blanks.
  1. _______ launched “Civil Disobedience Movement” and “Quit Indi Movement”. (Gandhi)
  2. The Muslims got ______ seats in the Provincial Assembly Elections in 1946. (428)
  • Cabinet Mission Plan consisted of _________British Ministers. (three)
  1. When India was partitioned, _______ was the Viceroy of India. (Lord Mountbatten)
  2. The Lahore Resolution was presented by _______. (A.K. Fazl-ul-Haque)
  3. Jinnah-Gandhi Talks began in the year ______ (1944).
  • The _____ Mission proposed to make India a Union. (Cabinet)
  • The Muslim League declared the day of 16 August, 1946 as _________ (direct action day)
  1. The Head of Boundary Commission for the partition of India was ________ (Radcliff)
  2. The Indian Independence Act was approved on ______. (18TH July, 1947)

 

 

 

(Part-2)

 

Q4. Write short answers.
  1. Which resolution was presented by the Chief Minister Bengal, Mr. Hussain Shaheed Shurawardy in the convention of Assembly Members in 1946?

Ans: As a result of forth righteousness of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah), Speeches made in the Muslim League Convention and the Resolution, even the members of the Cabinet Mission started thinking that Pakistan was indispensable to address the political issue in India.

  After this, another resolution was moved by Mr. Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy, the then Chief Minister of Bengal. It was also passed unanimously.

The Resolution declared that the zones comprising Bengal and Assam in the North-East and the Punjab, NWFP (KPK), Sindh and Balochistan in the North-West of India; namely Pakistan zones, where the Muslims are in a dominant majority, be constituted into a sovereign independent State and that an unequivocal undertaking is given to implement the establishment of Pakistan without delay.”

This Resolution amended the ambiguity and inaccuracy that was created by using the word “States” in Pakistan Resolution 1940. Before the Convention came to an end, each member administrated an oath to struggle and make sacrifices for Pakistan.

 

 

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  1. Narrate three proposals of Cripps Mission:

Ans: Proposals of the Cripps Mission:

  1. After the war, the Sub-continent will be under the Crown but the British Government would avoid interfering in internal as well as external affairs.
  2. Defence, Foreign Affairs, Communication etc. will be handed over the Indians.
  3. The members of the provincial Legislative Assemblies will elect a Central Assembly for framing the constitution. After the constitution is framed, it will be sent to all the provinces for confirmation. The provinces which would not approve the constitution would have the authority to establish their independent status.
  4. Appropriate steps will be taken for the security of minorities.

 

 

 

  1. While presiding over the All Indian Muslim League session at Lahore in 1940, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) identified the direction for the struggle of the Muslims. Write any two points of this address.

Ans: Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Presidential Address:

While presiding over the All Indian Muslim League session at Lahore in 1940, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) identified the direction for the struggle of the Muslims. The main points of his address are as under:

  1. The Muslims are a separate nation because their customs, traditions, civilization, culture and above all religion is different from Hindus. Even though they had been living together for centuries, both have their distinctive identification. If the Sub-continent gets freedom in the form of United India, the rights of the Muslims will not be protected.
  2. The demand of the Muslims for a separate country is not unhistorical. Ireland got freedom from England; Spain and Portugal became separate states; Czechoslovakia got a separate identity as a result of the partition. The problem in India is not for an inter-communal character but manifestly of an international one, and it must be treated as such.
  3. British India is a Sub-continent. It is not a country or homeland of a nation. Many nations are living here and their interests are separate from one another.

 

 

 

  1. What was the reply of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) in Jinnah-Gandhi talks 1944?

Ans: Reply of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)

        Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) adjudged that the style adopted by Gandhi is nothing but cheating and hypocrisy and cunningness. He emphasized that the British must settle the issue of Pakistan before the freedom of India because Congress and Hindus could not be relied upon.

 

 

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  1. Many important personalities presented the opinion to partition India. Write the names of any five such personalities.

Ans: After the failure of a war of freedom in 1857, the Muslim leaders were constantly thinking about how they could provide the Muslims with the peaceful, secured and honoured environment. Although it was being discussed as to how to provide security to the Muslims, yet they were unsatisfied with their future. Many significant personalities like Syed Jamal-ud-Din Afghani, Abdul Haleem Sharar, Abdul Jabber Khairi, Abdus Sattar Khaki, Moulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Rahmatullah), Allama Iqbal (Rahmatullah) and Chaudhary Rehmat Ali proposed for partition the Sub-continent.

 

 

 

  1. How did the Provincial Groups form in the Cabinet Mission Plan?

Ans:     Cabinet Mission Plan 1946:

       In 1945, the Labor party came into power in Britain. Noticing the increasing political restlessness in India, the British Prime Minister, Lord Atlee sent a Cabinet Mission to India. This mission had two basic purposes.

The first purpose was to determine the Constitutional Status of India and the form of the Government.

The second purpose was to bridge the gap between the Muslims and the Hindus and try to convince the Muslims to live in United India. But the General Elections proved that it was quite impossible. The Commission consisted of three Ministers:

  1. Sir Stafford Cripps
  2. A.V. Alexander
  3. Lord Pethick Lawrence

Since all the members to the British cabinet, it was called Cabinet Mission.

 

 

 

  1. Write any three points of the Wavell Plan.

Ans:         Wavell Plan:

          Lord Wavell was the British viceroy in India. He announced to call for a conference to think over the issues of the Sub-continent so that decisions could be taken regarding the constitution of the future, the formation of the government and elections of the Assemblies. Following points were included in the Wavell Plan:

  1. The constitution of the future will be made with the will of all the political forces.
  2. Governor-General will preside over the Executive Council. All the members of the Executive Council will belong to the Sub-continent except the Commander in Chief.
  3. After the reconstituting the Executive Council in the centre, Executive Councils will be reconstituted in all the provinces.

 

 

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  1. Describe the manifestos of the Muslim League and the Congress in the General Elections 1945-46.

Ans:     Manifestos of Congress and Muslim League:

It was the manifesto of Congress that South-Asia will be liberated as a single unit. No scheme of the partition will be acceptable to them. Congress claimed itself to be the representative of all the communities and sections of the people living in the Sub-continent and that the Muslims also agree to the viewpoint of the Congress.

Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) affirmed that the General Elections will prove plebiscite regarding Pakistan. If the Muslims stood with the Muslim League, it meant they wanted Pakistan. Otherwise, the demand for a separate homeland should be considered as rejected. Muslim League stepped in the arena of elections claiming that it was the only representative of the Muslims of Sub-continent. Although there existed some other Muslim parties, yet none of them represented the majority of the Muslims. Muslim League wanted the partition of South-Asia by the Pakistan Resolution. So, the Muslims could have full authority in the areas having Muslim in the majority.

 

 

 

  1. Write the text of the Pakistan Resolution.

Ans:    Pakistan Resolution 1940:

     The 27 Annual Session of All India Muslim League was held at Lahore in the historical park “Iqbal Park on 23rd of March 1940. It was presided over by the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Rahmatullah) Great personalities like Moulana Zafar Ali Khan, Chaudhary Khaleeq-uz-Zaman, Qazi Muhammad Issa, Sir Abdullah Haroon, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar and Moulana Abdul Hamid Badayooni were presented in this session. A large number of Muslims from all over the Sub-continent participated in the session. A resolution named “Lahore Resolution” was presented in the session by the Tiger of Bengal A.K Fazl-ul-Haque. It was passed unanimously among the cheers. Thus, on this historical day, the Muslims identified their destination.

 

 

 

  1. Write the names of five ministers of Muslim League included in the Interim Government.

Ans:    The five ministers from the Muslim League were as under:

  1. Liaquat Ali Khan
  2. Abdur Rab Nishtar
  3. Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
  4. Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan
  5. Jogendra Nath Mandal

 

 

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  1. Write the names of the members of Cabinet Mission Plan 1946.

Ans:      The Commission consisted of three Ministers

  1. Sir Stafford Cripps
  2. A.V. Alexander
  3. Lord Pethick Lawrence

Since all the members belonged to the British cabinet, it was called cabinet Mission.

 

 

 

  1. Narrate the standpoint of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) on Rowlatt Act 1919.

Ans:    Rowlatt Act 1919:

In 1919, Sir Sydney Rowlatt got an act passed. It was named as the Rowlatt Act. It was a black law. The administration was given unlimited powers and the civil rights were trodden upon. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) raised his voice against it. He wrote to the Viceroy Lord Chelmsford, “In my opinion, the government that passes or sanctions such a law in time of peace forfeits its claim to be called a civilized Government.”

 

 

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  1. How did India occupy Kashmir?

Ans:  There were 635 princely states in the Sub-continent A large number of these states joined one either of the two countries. However, no decision could be made of the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Hyderabad Deccan, Junagadh, Mangrol and Manawadar. Afterwards, India occupied these states. The Muslims were a minority in these states except Jammu and Kashmir. Therefore, Pakistan arose the question of rights of the people concerning the Muslim majority state Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan is one of the views that the right of self-determination of every state must be honoured, and the future, of the state, must be decided by the wishes of the people.

 

 

 

  1. Describe the holding of All parties Conference under the 3rd June, 1947 Plan.

Ans: All Parties Conference:

      When Mountbatten came back from London, he convened an all Parties Conference. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahamtullah), Liaquat Ali Khan, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Pandit Nehru participated in it. Viceroy of India explained the various aspects of the partition plan. Afterwards, he held separate meetings with leaders of each plan. On 3rd June, 1947, the second session of the Conference was conducted. All the leaders approved the Plan. Despite the promise made with the Muslims had been breached and injustice was done to gain the goodwill of the leaders of the Congress, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) accepted the Plan unwillingly. The speeches of the representative of both the major parties were broadcasted on the radio. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) ended his speech with Pakistan Zinda Baad.

 

 

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  1. How did the Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) get the title of “Ambassador of Peace”?

Ans:    Under Lucknow Pact, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) united both of the nations (The Hindus and the Muslims) in 1916. He got the right of separate electorates for the Muslims acknowledged and got the title of Ambassador of Peace.

 

 

Write the answers in detail

 

 

Q5. Narrate the main points of the 3rd June, 1947 Plan.

Ans:   Main Points of 3rd June 1947 Plan:

   The Government decided to partition the Sub-continent. Acknowledging the principles stand of the establishment of two states, the Government settled the details and developed the programme regarding the future of various provinces and states.

  1. The Punjab and Bengal Province:

The Provincial Legislative Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal were to meet in two groups, i.e. Muslim majority districts and non-Muslim majority districts. The members of the two parts of each legislative Assembly sitting separately will be empowered to vote whether or not the Province should be partitioned. If any of the two decided in favour of the division of the province, then the Governor-General would appoint a boundary commission to demarcate the Province.

  1. The North-West Frontier Province (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa):

A referendum would be held in the NWFP to ascertain whether they wished to join Pakistan or India. The political issues of the Tribal Areas would be settled by the Government that is formed after the referendum. The Governor-General would conduct referendum himself and for this purpose, he would have the co-operation of the Provincial Government.

  1. Sindh:

Sindh Assembly would decide the future state of the province through the majority of the vote. It would be decided whether the province wished to join Pakistan or India. The European Members of Sindh Assembly would not have the right to vote.

  1. Balochistan:

Balochistan had not been given the status of the province till then. According to Plan, the opinion of the Quetta Municipality and Shahi Jirga would be sought. The official members would not be included in the voting.

  1. Non-Muslim Majority Provinces:

The Whole of Assam excluding Sylhet would become a part of India. Likewise, Bihar, Orissa, U.P, C.P, Bombay (Mumbai) and Madras would be included in India.

  1. Princely States:

There were 635 such states in the Sub-continent as were ruled by Nawabs of Rajas. Some important states include Jammu & Kashmir, Kapurthala, Bikaner, Hyderabad Deccan, Swat, Dir, Patiala, Bahawalpur and Junagadh. These states were also given the option to decide their future and join the country of their own choice.

 

 

 

Q6. Describe the background of the Pakistan Resolution, its basic points and the reaction of Hindus at the approval of this Resolution.

Ans: Background of Pakistan Resolution:

The Muslims wanted to secure themselves against the domination of Hinduism. The Hindu parties were making the demand for Ram Raj, Hinduism was constantly trying to merge Islam into it like other issues. If the united sub-continent had got freedom, it would have been a permanent form of Hindu Authority because modern democratic system believes in a majority government. It was a must to get rid of the dominance of the Hindus and it was possible only if the Sub-continent was divided.

  1. In spite of the presence of the British Rule, the blood of the Muslims was shed mercilessly in sectarian riots.
  2. The Muslims were given less status in society. They could not lead a dignified and graceful life in the Hindu Society that believes in the caste system, colour and creed and the Hindus could never agree to give the Muslims equal social status.
  • In different periods, different visionaries gave the signs about the partition of the Sub-continent, But Allama Muhammad Iqbal (Rahmatullah) while presiding over the annual session of All India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930 presented the clear plan in a forceful and argumentative manner. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali prepared a pamphlet “Now or never” and distributed it among the participants of the third Round Table Conference being held in London.
  1. Sindh Muslim League passed a resolution in the favor of partition.
  2. In 1940, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) got the Resolution of Pakistan passed and formed it as the demand of the Millat.

Text of the Resolution:

    The Resolution declared: “No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent united shall be autonomous and sovereign.” It further reads, “That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political and administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority”

Reaction to the Resolution:

     The Hindu leaders began to express their views against the Resolution. The Resolution was ridiculed. Gandhi and the Hindus opposed the Resolution. All India Muslim League named this Resolution as “Lahore Resolution” but the Hindu Press ridiculously began to write it as “Pakistan Resolution”. The Muslims leaders adopted this new term and today it is called “Pakistan Resolution”.

The British Press called this “Resolution or Pakistan of Jinnah”. The Hindu Newspapers “The Hindustan Times”, “Modern Review” and “Amrita Bazar Patrika” wrote editorials against the plan of partition.

Hindus were of the view that the proposal for the partition will be rejected but the Muslims of the Sub-continent had decided their future. As a result of great struggle, they succeeded in getting Pakistan after seven years only.

 

 

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Q7. Why were the Elections of 1945-46 held? How did the results of these elections benefit the Muslims?

Ans:   General Elections 1945-46:

After the failure of the Simla Conference, it was necessary to estimate the position of political parties in the eyes of the people and which party can run the future of the Sub-Continent. In these circumstances, To discover the public trends, the British Government announced holding the General Elections. It was decided that the Central and Provincial Legislature elections would be held in January, 1945. All the political parties of India announced to contest the elections

Results of the Election:

The Central Legislature elections were held in December, 1945. These elections were held based on separate electorates. Thirty seats were reserved for the Muslims throughout the Sub-continent. Candidates of Muslim League won the election on all the thirty reserved seats. Thus, Muslim League got cent per cent success. The Provincial Legislature elections were held in 1946. In all the provincial Legislatures, altogether 492 seats were reserved for the Muslims. Muslim League captured 428 seats. Thus, Muslim League got the splendid victory at the provincial level too.

 

 

 

Q8. Describe the role of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) in the creation of Pakistan?

Ans:   Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Role in the making of Pakistan:

          The personality of Quaid-e-Azam changed the fate of the Muslims in South Asia. He compelled the British as well as the Hindus to partition India. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Rahmatullah) was born on 25th December, 1876 in Karachi. His father, Poonja Jinnah was a merchant. He got his early education at home. At the age of ten, he was sent to the Sindh’s Madrassat-ul-Islam High School Karachi. After passing his matriculation, he went to London for higher education. There he joined Lincoln’s Inn College (now university) to get the education of law. On his return, he started practising law at Bombay (Mumbai) in 1896. He also began to take part in politics. He participated in the session of Anjuman-e-Islam Bombay (Mumbai) and Congress. In 1906, he participated in the session of the Congress to be held at Bombay (Mumbai) as a Muslim representative. On the persuasion of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and Syed Wazir Hassan, he joined All-India Muslim League in 1913. Afterwards, he got busy with changing the course of the history of the Muslims.

His intellectual politics eradicated the British Colonialism. After Pakistan came into being, He was appointed the first Governor-General of Pakistan. He died on 11 September, 1948 in Karachi and was buried there.

Services Rendered by Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah)

  1. Under Lucknow Pact, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) united both of the nations (The Hindus and the Muslims) in 1916. He got the right of separate electorates for the Muslims acknowledged and got the title of Ambassador of Peace.
  2. He along with Hindu leader, Gokhale demanded new constitutional reforms in 1913. Again in 1919, his efforts for the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms are of great significance.
  3. In 1919, Sir Sydney Rowlatt got an act passes. It was named The Rowlatt Act. It was a black law. The administration was given unlimited powers and the civil rights were trodden upon. Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) raised his voice against it. He wrote to the Viceroy Lord Chelmsford, “In my opinion, the government that passes or sanctions such a law in times of peace forfeits its claim to be called a civilized Government.”
  4. In Delhi-Muslim proposals in 1927, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) withdrew the right of the separate electorate and indicated to co-operate with the Congress but it could not be fulfilled.
  5. He rejected Nehru Report in 1928 and presented his Fourteen Points in 1929 which determined the goal of the Muslims.
  6. He participated in the Round Table Conferences (1930-31) and maintained the national identity of the Muslims.
  7. He injected a new life into the dead body of Muslim League in 1935-36 and guided the freedom movement.
  8. In October 1937, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) was unanimously accepted as a leader in the Muslim League Session at Lucknow. After it, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) toured the length and breadth of the country on an emergency basis.
  9. In his address at Minto Park (now Iqbal Park); in the session of Muslim League, he explained the Two-Nation theory that became the basis of Pakistan.
  10. From 1940 to 1945, on one side he made many efforts for reconciliation between the Government and political parties, and on the other side, between the Muslim League and the Congress. Among them, Cripps Mission, Jinnah-Gandhi Talks and Simla Conference are worth-mentioning.
  11. It was the fruit of his efforts that the Muslim League met with success in 1945-46 Elections. He made all the conspiracies of the Hindus and the British unsuccessful. At last, Lord Mountbatten presented 3 June, 1947 Plan promising to establish Pakistan and Pakistan came into being on 14th August, 1947.

 

 

 

Q9. Narrate the British Colonial System in India.

Ans:    British Colonialism in India:

  1. The system of Government developed by the European Nations after they had established their authority over Asia and many other countries of Africa is called Colonialism. Colonialism is established to protect and extend the interests of the foreign rulers. Its purpose is to establish authority over other countries and utilize the resources in the interest of the dominant nation. The European nations considered these countries a market for the consumption of their products and did not pay any attention to the development of these countries. As a result, the condition of the common man was worsened.
  2. After the arrival of Vasco da Gama In the Sub-continent, the European traders began to arrive. As there was no unity among local rulers in the 16th century and their military force was also much weak, they could not face the machinations of the Portuguese. The Portuguese occupied Goa and the coastal areas around it. They inflicted many atrocities on the inhabitants of these areas. They fortified themselves and made much money by unfair means.
  • Pursuing the Portuguese, many other nations of Europe started to trade with Subcontinent. Among them, the French and the English are worth-mentioning. Like the English, the French began to settle on the coastal areas of Pandi Chari (India). They along with trade began to establish their authority in the Sub-continent. They fortified themselves and occupied various areas. Moreover, the French could not succeed against the British. The English drove the French out of Sub-continent and began to expand their authority rapidly.
  1. The British East India Company got formal permission from Mughal Emperor Jehangir and Shah jehan to trade in the Sub-continent. East India Company established an outpost at Surat (India). After this, they established more outposts on the coast of Chennai.
  2. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the British availed of the disunion and weaknesses of the local rulers and occupied most of the areas of the Subcontinent insidiously and collusively. A rapid expansion in the colonial rule of the English was seen after the Palasi War 1757 when they defeated the ruler of Bengal, Nawab siraj-ud-Doula by the support of Mir Jafar. In 1764, Mughal ruler Shah Alam Saani and Mir Qasim were defeated in the Battle of Buxar, and Bengal and Oadh were occupied by the British.
  3. Hyder Ali, the ruler of Myrose, a powerful Muslim state, resisted against the increasing force of the British manfully. After the death of Hyder Ali, his son Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Tipu continued Jihad against the British. The British allied with the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marhattas in 1799. And martyred Sultan Tipu in the Battle of Myrose. With the death of Sultan Tipu, not only Myrose was occupied by the British, but their authority began to expand other areas also by the mid of nineteenth century, the British had reached to the west of the Sub-continent i.e. Punjab and NWFP (KPK)
  • The inhabitants of Sub-continent tried to restore their freedom and independence by terminating the British Government but they had to face failure because of poor planning, lack of organization and limited resources. Thus, the colonial rule of the British was established hand and foot in the Sub-continent. The East India Company finally came to an end in 1858 and the Sub-Continent was given under the direct control of the British Crown. The colonial rule of the British Government continued till 1947. This rule came to an end on 14th August, 1947. Thus, Pakistan and India came into existence as free and independent countries.

The strategy of the British:

  1. To provide raw materials to feed the various manufacturing industries of Britain
  2. To strengthen the British Economy to get its economic power acknowledged by the world
  3. To use the Sub-continent as a market for British manufactures.
  4. To get Britain acknowledged as a major military power in the world and to introduce the English as a superior nation.
  5. To prolong the rule under the formula of “Divide and Rule” by exaggerating differences between the Muslims and the Hindus.

 

 

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Q10. Write the salient features of the Cabinet Mission Plan 1946.

Ans:    Proposals of Cabinet Mission:

The members of the Cabinet Mission met the leaders of all the political parties to find their point of views but they could not reach any result. On 16th May, 1946 the members of the Cabinet Mission announced a plan of their own. The salient features of the plan were as under

  1. Sub-continent, A Union:

The Sub-continent should be a Union consisting of many provinces and several states. A federation should be formed. The Union should deal with the subjects of defence, foreign affairs and communications. The Union should have the powers to raise the finances required for the above subjects. All subjects other than the union subjects shall be vest with the provinces.

  1. Formation of Provincial Groups:

The provinces of India were to form three groups:

Group A:

Hindu majority provinces of Madras, Bombay (Mumbai), U.P, C.P, Bihar and Orissa.

Group B:

Muslim majority Provinces like Punjab, NWFP (KPK), Balochistan and Sindh

Group C:

Bengal and Assam

  1. Elections of the Central Legislature:

The members of the Provincial Assemblies will elect the Central Legislature. The central Legislature will frame the constitution for the whole of the country. After the Central Constitution is framed, all the three provincial groups will prepare their constitutions.

  1. Interim Government:

An Interim Government would be set up immediately. This government will run the system till the constitution is framed. The Interim Government will consist of the representatives of major parties. All the ministers in the Interim Government will be local. No British will be included in the cabinet. The cabinet will have autonomy in administrative affairs. After the Central Constitution is framed, any province could change its group if it thought necessary. Every province would be empowered to join the group of its own choice.

  1. Separation from Union:

If one or two provinces from the three groups of provinces decide to separate from the Union, they could do so but after ten years. This point granted the right to the Muslim majority areas of group B and group C to make Pakistan after ten years. Thus, the process of the partition will complete automatically.

  1. Veto Power:

To appease and calm down the Congress, a point was added to the proposals made by the Commission that if a political party dislikes the proposals given by Cabinet Mission, it can veto it. However, the right to join the Interim Government will be given to only that political party which accepts the proposals. They thought that as the demand of Muslim League “Pakistan” is not being accepted so that it will reject the proposals. Thus, Congress will approve the Cabinet Mission Plan to form the Central Interim Government.

 

 

 




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