Exercise (Part-1)



Q1. Four possible options are given for each statement. Mark (✓) on the correct option.

  1. The highest peak of Kohistan-e-Hindukush is
  • Malika Parbat
  • Tirich Mir
  • Nanga Parbat
  • Everest


  1. In the southern area of Pakistan, there is a mountain range of
  • Himalayas
  • Koh-e-Karakoram
  • Koh-e-Kirthar
  • Koh-e-Sufaid


  1. The total area of Pakistan is
  • 696095 square kilometers
  • 765789 square kilometers
  • 796096 square kilometers
  • 546321 square kilometers


  1. To the south of Pakistan lies
  • Bay of Bengal
  • The Arabian Sea
  • The Persian Gulf
  • Iran


  1. How much part of the total area of Pakistan is covered with forests?
  • 2
  • 5
  • 15
  • 25


  1. Along the borders of Pakistan and China, there is a mountain range of
  • Himalayas
  • Siwalik
  • Karakoram
  • Hindukush


  1. Shahrah-e-Resham connects Pakistan with China through
  • Khunjerab Pass
  • Khyber Pass
  • Tochi Pass
  • Gomal Pass


  1. The national animal of Pakistan is
  • Chakor
  • Markhor
  • Deer
  • Lion



i.              B ii.             C iii.            C iv.           B
v.            B vi.           C vii.          A viii.         B




Q2. Match Column “A” with Column “B”

               Column A              Column B
Durand Line River
Kareez Glacier
Biafo Barrage
Tochi Pak-Afghan Border
Kotri Underground water Channels


              Column A           Column B
Durand Line Pak-Afghan Border
Kareez Underground water Channels
Biafo Glacier
Tochi River
Kotri Barrage







Q3. Fill in the blanks.

  1. To the south of Pakistan lies ________. (The Arabian Sea).
  2. Northern mountain ranges make the Northern ______ of Pakistan secured to a great extent. (border)
  3. Pakistan is divided into ____ climatic regions. (four)
  4. River Indus enters Pakistan at ___________. (Skardu)
  5. The plain area of Pakistan starts from Pothwar and stretches to (Mithan Kot).
  6. Desert is the area that receives less than ______ inches of rainfall annually. (10)
  7. Forests cover ______ % of the total area in Pakistan. (five)
  8. The level of noise pollution is much higher in _____ areas. (city)
  9. Shahrah-e-Resham is situated in ______ mountain range. (Koh-e-Karakoram)
  10. The desert of Kharan is in ____ province. (Balochistan).







Q4. Write short answers.

  1. Write five reasons for decreasing of forests.

Ans:    There are many reasons for shortage in forests. Some important reasons are given below:

  1. Excessive cutting of trees
  2. Increase in salinity and water logging
  3. Diseases of trees
  4. Decrease in rainfall
  5. Breaking of fires in forests
  6. Environmental pollution
  7. Shortage in river water




  1. Describe the location of Pakistan.

Ans: Location of Pakistan:

Pakistan is located between latitudes 23° – and 37° N, and longitudes 61° and 77° E. India lies in the East of Pakistan, China in the North while Afghanistan in the North-west and Iran in the West. The Arabian Sea is in the South of Pakistan.







iii. State five causes of soil pollution.

Ans:  Soil Pollution:

Major causes of this pollution are as under:

  1. Releasing used water of houses and factories
  2. Spraying pesticides on crops and using chemical fertilizers
  3. Natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods etc
  4. Salinity and water logging
  5. Heaps of domestic and industrial wastage.




  1. In which mountain range Tochi Pass and Gomal Pass are situated?

Ans:  This mountain range stretches in the south of River Kurram along the Pak-Afghan border from north to south. Tochi Pass and Gomal Pass are situated in these hills.




  1. Write the types of pollution

Types of Environmental Pollution:

  1. Air Pollution
  2. Water Pollution
  3. Soil Pollution
  4. Noise Pollution







  1. Write the names of five glaciers located in Pakistan.

Ans:    Our long and unique canal irrigation system owes a great deal to these glaciers.

Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo, Hispar, Rimo and Batura etc are among huge glaciers of Pakistan.




vii. What are the hazards to our environment nowadays?

Hazards to our Environment:

A rapidly growing population creates many problems. On one side, we are facing the problem of attainment of self-sufficiency in food while on the other side, we are facing rapidly decreasing agricultural resources especially the problem of getting water shortage. Fertile lands are being turned into barren ones. Today, our environment is facing following major hazards:

  1. Salinity and water logging
  2. Deforestation
  3. Desertification
  4. Increase in environmental pollution







viii. Describe five steps taken by the Government to decrease industrial pollution.

Ans: Five steps were taken by the Government:

  • Installation of Tube-Wells:

By the installation of tube-wells, the water table goes down. The water obtained by tube-wells brings a decrease in water logging.

  • Cemented Canals:

The banks of canals and water channels are strengthened so that water may not seep into the ground

  • Proper Irrigation System:

Introducing a proper system of irrigating fields, noise pollution can be decreased.

  • Establishment of Laboratories

Steps have been taken for the establishment of laboratories for water and soil testing.

  • Training of Farmers:

Training and counselling of farmers must be carried out




Write the answers in detail



Q5. Evaluate the significance of the location of Pakistan.

Ans: Importance of the Location of Pakistan:

      So far as the location of Pakistan is concerned, it occupies specific importance not only in South-Asia but also all over the world. Pakistan is a key source to establish a link between East and West. Following points explain the importance of the location of Pakistan.

  1. In the east of Pakistan, there lies India which has the second-largest population in the world after China. India is an agricultural as well as industrial country. It is a nuclear power too. We have not been on good terms with India since we got the freedom. Both countries have fought three wars so far. Because of unfriendly conditions, the region could not make progress and development. Both Pakistan and India, for their defence are spreading a large portion of their budget on weapons of warfare. Both countries have gone much far in the race of nuclear weapons and missiles. If war breaks out now, there will be destruction and nobody will gain anything. Kashmir is the main cause of rivalry between Pakistan and India. If India forgoes its obstinate standpoint and both the countries resolve their issues through mutual negotiations, it will bring peace and prosperity to all the people living in this region of South Asia.
  2. Afghanistan is situated to the North-West of Pakistan. The adjoining border with Afghanistan is called the Durand Line.
  3. In the North-west of Pakistan, there are Central Asian Republics Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. All these republics are landlocked. These are located away from the ocean. They own no coast. Their total population is less than that of Pakistan but they are six times larger than Pakistan concerning area. Pakistan has religious, cultural and economic relations with these Islamic States
  4. China is located in the north of Pakistan. It has emerged as an important economic force in the world. Sharah-e-Resham (Karakoram Highway) connects Pakistan with China. The Highway is constructed by Pakistan and China collaborated. The two countries enjoy exceptional relations. China has stood by Pakistan in every hour of trial. Pakistan is also proud of its friendship with China. Many development projects in Pakistan are going on with the support of China. China has always supported Pakistan. Pak-China Friendship is matchless.
  5. The Arabian Sea is located in the South of Pakistan. It is the part of the Indian Ocean. Most trade between the East and West is done through the route of the Indian Ocean. Thus, Pakistan has much significance because of its location on an important trade route. The adjoining Muslim countries of the Persian Gulf i.e. Iran, Kuwait. Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Arab emirates are linked with Pakistan, through the Arabian Sea. The Arabian Sea has always been the centre of attention among major powers because of the importance of the Persian Gulf, Karachi, Port Qasim, Pasni, Gwadar etc are the important sea-ports of Pakistan.
  6. Our country has established relations with many other countries through the Arabian Sea route. Among them, South-east Muslim countries (Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam), South Asian Muslim countries (Bangladesh, Maldives) and Sri Lanka are included.




Q6. Give an account of the mountain ranges in Pakistan.

Ans: Mountain Ranges:

         The high piece of land that has rocky, uneven and steep surface is called a mountain. Pakistan has the following mountain ranges.

  1. Northern Mountain Ranges
  2. Central Mountain Ranges
  3. Western Mountain Ranges
  4. Northern Mountain Ranges:

These mountain ranges are located in the north of Pakistan. These mountain ranges make the Northern borders of Pakistan secured to a great extent. They stop the winds coming from the Arabian Sea and Bengal Gulf causing snow-fall and rain. There are many healthy places in this region where people go for tourism. Among these places, Muree, Ayubia, Nathiagali, Kaghan, Lipa Valley, Skardu, Swat Valley, Kalam Neelam Valley, Bagh, Hunza, Chitral, Chilas and Gilgit are famous.

The Northern mountain ranges include the following ranges:

  • Sub-Himalayan Range or Siwalik Hills:

This mountain range is in the east of the River Indus. It is the southern branch of Himalaya which stretches from east to west. It is also called Siwalik Mountain Range. Pabbi Hills are its famous hills which are situated in the south of Hazara and Muree. Their western range is in Pakistan whereas the major part of them is in India.

  • The Lesser Himalayan Range:

The Lesser Himalayan Range lies north of the Sub-Himalayan Range or Siwalik Range. This range stretches from east to west. Pir Panjal is the highest mountain range here. Muree, Ayubia and Nathiagali are the famous resort places of this range. A small part of the Lesser Himalayan range is in Pakistan while the remaining part of it is situated in occupied Kashmir and the north of India.

  • The Greater Himalayan Range:

It is one of the highest mountain ranges in the world. It is covered with snow throughout the year. The beautiful valley of Kashmir is located between the Pir Panjal range and the Greater Himalayan Range. The glaciers are found in this region which melt to form rivers. Nanga Parbat is the highest peak of this range.

  • Karakorum Range:

Karakoram Range stretches from west to east in Kashmir and Gilgit along with the borders of China. It is in the north of Himalayas. The second highest peak in the world is located in this range. It is called Mt Godwin Austin or K-2. It reaches a height of 8611 meters. Shahrah-e-Resham, which is also known as Karakoram Highway passes through this range and leads to China via Khunjerab.

  • The Hindukush Mountains:

The Hindu Kush Mountain Range is located in the North-West of Pakistan. Most of the mountains of this range are In Afghanistan. The highest peak of this range is Tirich Mir.

  • Mountains of Swat and Chitral:

Small mountain ranges stretch to the south of the Hindukush range. Between these mountains, there is the Lowari Pass which connects Chitral with Peshawar. It remains closed in the winter due to snow-fall. A tunnel named Lowari Tunnel is constructed here. Through this tunnel, traffic between Chitral and Peshawar runes throughout the year. The Swat River, the Panjkora River (Kunar River) and the Chitral River flow between these mountain ranges.

  1. Central Mountain Ranges:
  • Salt Range:

This mountain range is located, in the south of Pothwar Plateau, between River Jhelum and Indus River. Sakesar is a beautiful place in this range. Deposits of salt, gypsum and coal are found in this range.

  • The Sulaiman Mountain Range:

The Sulaiman Mountain Range stretches from north to south. It starts from south of the River Gomal and reaches to the centre of Pakistan. Takht-e-Sulaiman is the highest peak of the Sulaiman Range.

  • Kirthar Mountains:

To the south of Sulaiman Mountains and the west of Indus River stretches the range of Kirthar Mountains. It is located to the west of the Lower Indus Plain. It consists of low high and barren mountains. Hub River and Lyari River from Kirthar towards the Arabian Sea.

  1. Western Mountains Ranges:
  2. Koh-e-Sufaid range:

Koh-e-Sufaid stretches from east to west of Indus River stretches the range of Kirthar Mountains. It is located to the west of the Lower Indus Plain. It consists of low high and barren mountains. Hub River and Lyari River flow from Kirthar towards the Arabian Sea.

  • Waziristan Hills:

This mountains range stretches in the south of River Kurram along the Pak-Afghan border from north to south. Tochi Pass and Gomal Pass are situated in these hills.

  • Toba Kakar Mountain Range:

Toba Kakar Mountain Range is situated along the Afghan border to the south of Waziristan Hills. It extends from north-east towards south-west till it ends in the north of Quetta.

  • Chaghi Hills and Ras Koh Hills:

To the west of Pakistan, along the Afghan border, mere lie the Chaghi Hills. Ras Koh Hills is situated in the south of the Chaghi Hills.

  • Saihan Hills:

To the south of Ras Koh, there are Saihan Hills in the province of Balochistan.

  • Central Makran Hills:

These hills are situated in Balochistan. The winter season here is extremely cold whereas the summers are mild.

  • Hills of Makran Coast:

These hills are situated in the west of Saihan Hills. These are low hills.







Q7. Write a note on the following:
  • Plateau

  • Plain

Ans: Plateau:

There are two plateaus in Pakistan. They are:

  1. Pothwar Plateau
  2. Balochistan Plateau
  3. Pothwar Plateau:

Pothwar Plateau is situated in the north of Salt Ranges. It is in the middle of River Jhelum and Indus River. Huge reserves of Gypsum, Coal and mineral oil are found in it. River Sawan is an important one of this area. It makes its valley here. This is known as Sawan Valley. The surface of Pothwar Plateau is badly cracked.

  1. Balochistan Plateau:

Balochistan Plateau is located in the west of Sulaiman Range and Kirthar range. Balochistan Plateau is uneven and barren. It receives very low rainfall, therefore; this region has desert-like characteristics. To the north of this Plateau, there are arc mountain ranges of Chaghi and Toba Karkar. There are lakes with salty water in the western part of the province of Balochistan. Among them, the most famous and the largest one is Hamoon-e-Mashkhel Lake.

(b) Plain:

A vast, less steep and comparatively even surface of the land is called a plain. Plains of Pakistan can be divided into two parts:

  • Upper Indus Plain
  • Lower Indus Plain
  • Upper Indus Plain:

This plain extends from the south of Pothwar plateau to Mithankot in the Punjab province. If we assume Mithankot a base, where all the rivers of Punjab join the River Indus, and the whole area above Mithankot towards Punjab will be called Upper Indus Plain. Whereas, the whole area below Mithankot towards Sindh to the point of Thatha will be the Lower Indus Plain.

Towards North, the Upper Indus Plain is high whereas it is steeply towards South. That’s why all the large rivers of Pakistan flow from the north towards south. To the west of the plain lies the Desert of Thar. This plain is called Punjab i.e. the land of five rivers because these five rivers irrigate it. Even today, Punjab is playing an important role in meeting the food requirements of the country.

  • Lower Indus Plain:

Below Mithan Kot, the River Indus forms the shape of a huge river and flows alone till it reaches Thatha. Therefrom it is divided into the delta and falls into the Arabian Sea. This whole area is called the Lower Indus Plain. To the south-west of this plain lies the Kirthar range whereas the Thar Desert is located to the east of the plain. Like the Upper Plain, the Lower Indus Plain is also very fertile. It is well known for early season vegetables and fruits. Irrigation is done mostly with canals but there is a problem of shortage of canal-water. The river flows slowly and is divided into many branches, forming the shape of delta A before it falls into the sea. That’s why this area is called “Deltaic”.




Q8. In how many climatic regions in Pakistan divided? Write the detail of each region.

Ans. Climatic Regions of Pakistan:

         Pakistan can be divided into the following regions concerning the climate.

  1. Sub-Tropical Continental Highland
  2. Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau
  3. Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland
  4. Tropical Coastland
  5. Sub-Tropical Continental Highland:

This climatic region of Pakistan includes northern highland (Outer as well as Central Himalayas), north-western Mountain ranges (Chitral, Swat etc). Western mountain ranges (Waziristan, Zhob and Loralai) and the mountain ranges of Balochistan (Quetta, Sara wan, Central Makran and Jhalwan). The winters are extremely cold here It usually snows. The summer season has moderate temperature whereas rains are received at the end of winter and at the beginning of spring. In some parts of this region, for example, Outer Himalayas, Murree and Hazara, rains are experiencing all-round the year.

  1. Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau:

This region includes the western part of Balochistan. From May to mid-September hot and dusty winds continue to blow. Some rains are received in January and February. The climate of this region is extremely hot and dry in summer. An important characteristic of this region is the dusty winds that blow during the summer season.

  1. Sub-tropical Continental Lowland:

This climatic region includes the upper Indus plain (the province of Punjab) and lower Indus Plain (the province of Sindh). The summers are extremely hot. Monsoon winds cause heavy rains in northern Punjab at the end of summer season whereas the remaining plain areas receive fewer rains. The same situation remains during the winter season. Thai and south-eastern deserts are the hottest areas. Very little rains are receiving. Wind storms of thunder-storms are experienced in the plain area of Peshawar.

  1. Tropical Coastland:

This climatic region includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan. Very little difference is recorded between daily and annual temperature. During the summer season, the breeze blows from the sea towards land, high humidity is experience. The annual average temperature is 32 C. May and June are the hottest months. The coastal areas of Lasbela receive more rainfall during the summer whereas the western part receives more rainfall during winter.







Q9. Elaborate “How does climate affect human life”?

Ans:     The Effects of Climate on Human Life:

Climate affects human life deeply. All the human activities are affected by climate. All the economic, social, cultural, political and commercial activities, most of the people living in any country, depend mostly to a great extent upon the climate. There is intensity in a climate of the plain areas of Pakistan. It means that summers are hot and winters are cold. This type of climate is very useful for different kinds of crops, vegetables and fruits. Plain areas are made up by the soil that the rivers bring along with them. That’s why they are very fertile. These are densely populated areas. They enjoy better economic circumstances. The scarcity of rain in plan areas is made up with an irrigation system by the water of rivers and underground water. The area has the maximum of population. These areas have better facilities for transportation and communication. People enjoy better facilities.

  • The northern and north-western areas of Pakistan are surrounded by mountain ranges. These areas are thousands of meters higher than sea-level. The temperature of mountain areas falls below the freezing point. It snows frequently. All the activities of the people living here are limited during the winter. People store food items and other necessary commodities before the winter sets. Domestic handicrafts are of great, importance. Some people shift their cattle from mountain areas to plain areas as pastures cannot be used due to snow-fall. During summer, these areas are turned into lush green pastures again. The snow begins to melt and small streams and rivulets start flowing. The people living here drive their cattle back to these areas. Fanning is the major occupation of the people in the summer season. Fruits of various types are produced here. Reserves of minerals are also found in these areas. The people of this area are hardworking and sturdy. Tourism prospers due to picture square scenes and pleasant climate of these areas.
  • The climate of desert areas in Pakistan is too hot and dry. There is much difference between day and night temperatures. Heatwaves blow during day-time. Dust storms are also experiences. The southern areas of Sindh have especially the characteristics of deserts. The people living here lead hard lives. This area receives very little rainfall. Therefore, people have to fetch water from far off distant places. The life is comparatively comfortable in the areas which have canals as a source of water. Rearing of sheep and goats is the major source of earning for the people of these areas.
  • The climate of Balochistan Plateau is extremely hot during summers are extremely cold during winters. Some areas having high altitude receive snow-fall during winter. This is the driest area of Pakistan. Winter Snow-fall is an important source of the availability of water reservoirs in this area. During summer, water is stored in dales and small rivers. Hence, lakes and seasonal streams are found here. The rain-water is stored and is carried from one place to another through underground channels called “Kareez”. These underground channels are very important because of the high temperature in Balochistan. Water cannot evaporate from there. The source of living of people depends upon the availability of local resources.




Q10. What is meant by the drainage system? Write in detail.

Ans: Drainage System (System of the Rivers):

       The glaciers in Pakistan start melting in the summer because of an increase in temperature. The water flowing out from these glaciers from the shape of springs and streams. It finally falls into rivers, because soil erosion of glaciers, many fresh water lakes are formed in the mountain areas of Pakistan. They meet the water needs of the local people.

River Indus:

           River Indus and its tributaries irrigate Pakistan. Originating in the Northern Mountains near the border of China, the Indus River runs a course through Occupied Kashmir and then enters Pakistan at Skardu, flowing through the plains of Punjab and Sindh, it falls into the Arabian Sea at Thatha in Sindh.

Tributaries of River Indus:

        As it flows through its course, it is joined by several rivers, small and large. These are called tributaries of River Indus. The Eastern tributaries include the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. They join the River Indus in the province of Punjab. The Western tributaries include River Panjkora, Swat, Kabul, Kurram, and Tochi etc.







Q11. Describe the importance of the plain region of Pakistan.

Ans: Plain Region of Punjab:

      Most of the plain region of Punjab includes the province of the Punjab and Sindh. It is called the Upper Indus Plain and Lower Indus Plain. However, some of the plain regions lie in KPK and Balochistan. We will discuss all of them below:

Plain Region of Punjab:

This region is also known as Upper Indus Plain. It is very fertile. It is made of silt that the rivers have been bringing along with them over the years. This region starts from Pothwar and the Salt Range and stretches up to Mithan Kot. It is the largest cultivated area. Doaba Is the piece of land that lies between two rivers. The land of Punjab is spread area between many water doabas. Canals are the main source of irrigation. To meet the needs of the ever-increasing population of the country, tube-wells are also used to irrigate the fields. Barrages are constructed on the rivers. Two types of canals, irrigation canals and link canals are dug out from these barrages. Most of barrages and irrigation canals are in the plain region of Punjab.

Wheat, cotton, sugarcane and maize are the main crops of this region. The orchards of oranges, mangoes and guava are found in a large number. This region is of prime importance from an agricultural point of view. It not only meets the food needs of our country but also earns huge foreign exchange by the export of fruits, cotton and rice. The rice of the region is famous throughout the world for its aroma and taste. Industrial development based on agricultural development is another prominent characteristic of this region. The major part of the plain region in Punjab is densely populated. Large cities are situated in this region such as Lahore, Faisalabad and Multan etc.

Plain Region of Sindh:

This region is also known as Lower Indus Plain. Like the Upper Indus Plain, this region is also very fertile. Thar Desert lies to the east of this region. Irrigation is mostly done with the help of canals but tube-wells are also used for irrigation purposes to make up the deficiency of water. Sakkar Barrage is the largest barrage of this region. Canals are dug out of other two barrages i.e. Guddu Barrage and Kotri Barrage, also Wheat, sugarcane, rice and cotton are major crops of this region. Banana, guava and dates of this region are very famous. Karachi and Hyderabad are the major cities in this region. Both of the cities are famous for industries too.

Plain Region of KPK and Balochistan:

The plain region of KPK mostly consists of the districts of Peshawar, bannu, Lakki Marwat, D.I Khan and Madran. Canals are dug out from the Warsak Dam. These canals irrigate the plain region of Peshawar. The region of Madran is irrigated by the Pahoor High-Level Canal. It is dug out from the River Indus. The areas of Bannu and Lakki Marwat are irrigated by the canal dug out from River Kurram whereas the fields in D.I Khan are irrigated by Chashma Right Bank Canal.

Balochistan is a dry region. Most of the plain areas of Balochistan are irrigated by two canals dug out from Guddu Barrage. These are Desert and Pat Feeder canals. The shortage of canal water is met with the help of tube-wells or other sources. Balochistan receives comparatively less rain-fall than KPK. Wheat, tobacco, sugarcane, maize and rice are major crops of this region.




Q12. Describe the significance of forests.

Ans:   Significance of Forests:

  1. The Northern mountain areas receive much rain. This rainwater, from mountains, comes down the slopes with great speed and falls into the rivers. The trees on slopes check the speedy flow of water. They help in preventing soil erosion and reduce the velocity of the water.
  2. Pakistan has limited energy resources. The wood obtained from the forests makes up the deficiency of coal. It is used for fuel.
  3. Forests provide different kinds of wood which are used in building and making of furniture and other things.
  4. Sports good are manufactured of forest wood. Pakistan exports these sports goods and earns foreign exchange.
  5. Forests make the climate of an area pleasant. They reduce the intensity of temperature.
  6. Forests are also a source of rain. They increase the number of water vapours in the air that cause rain-fall.
  7. If there are no forests, rivers wash away with them a huge quantity of sand and soil. They may fill the dams and artificial lakes. As a result, the storage capacity of water in dams and artificial lakes is decreased and less quantity of water is available for agriculture and industry.
  8. Trees are very useful in water-logged and salinity affected areas. The roots of the trees absorb water from the soil. They decrease the underground level of water. As a result, the water level goes down.
  9. Herbs are found in forests. They are used in the preparation of medicines.
  10. Forests promote tourism. There are many places in the north and north-western mountain areas of Pakistan which are worth-seeing and tourist resort places.
  11. Forests are very necessary for wildlife (birds and animals)
  12. Forests provide us with different kinds of fruit and seeds. They also provide fodder for animals.
  13. Forests play a key role in the economy of Pakistan.
  14. Forests are the source of Lacquer and silk cocoon industry. They also provide us with mushrooms, honey and gum.
  15. The raw material of paper and cardboard industry is obtained from trees.

The government of Pakistan has taken many steps to increase the area of forests. Department of Forestry is trying hard in this connection. Nurseries are established in all the big cities. Plants are available from these nurseries at reasonable prices.







Q13. Write about the wildlife found in Pakistan and threats to it?

Ans: Wild Life in Pakistan:

The northern part of Pakistan is surrounded by mountains on three sides. These mountains include the Karakoram, the Himalayas and Hindukush. Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Wolf, Black Hare, Markhor, Bharal (Himalayan blue sheep), Wild Goat (Himalayan Tahr), Marcopolo Sheep, Deer and Patridge can be seen on the peaks of these mountains. The number of snow leopard, Marcopolo Sheep and Brown Bear is decreasing rapidly. The World Wild Life has declared these animals as endangered species.

  1. On less high mountain slopes, monkeys, red fox, black deer, leopard, partridge, Chakor can be seen. Forests are in abundance in Pothwar Plateau, Salt Range and Kala Chitta Mountain. Numerous wild animals are found in these forests. They include Goat Antelope, Chinkara deer, partridge, peacock, Chakor and other local birds.
  2. The plain areas of Pakistan are used for agricultural purposes. That’s why forests and wildlife found on plains are getting shrunk. Jackals, hyenas, mongoose and wolves are found in these areas even today.
  3. Chinkara Deer and peacocks are found in desert areas.
  4. Dry and barren mountains of Balochistan are habitations of Markhor, wild sheep, partridge, Chakor and various kinds of wild cats.
  5. Among hunting birds, falcon, hawk and Kestrel are commonly found in Pakistan. Other than these birds, many seasonal birds migrate from Siberia and other cold areas to the lakes of Pakistan. When the winter is over, these birds return to their original areas. Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan whereas Chakor is the national bird of Pakistan.
  6. Allah Almighty has blessed Pakistan with a variety of wildlife.

Following are the reasons for the continuous decrease in the growth and reproduction of wildlife

  • Illegal Hunting
  • Poor Planning
  • Continuous Increase in Human Population
  • Deforestation
  • Shortage of water
  • Shortage of fodder due to the increase in the number of domestic animals
  • The disappearance of wild sanctuaries.




Q14. What are the environmental hazards to our country? Write a note on types of pollution.

Ans: Major Environmental Hazards and their Remedies Environment:

All the things and factors around us that affect us directly are called environment. It includes physical features of the land, climate, soil, vegetation and other factors. Economic, political, social, religious, financial and all other activities which he performs in a specific area are under the influence of his or her environment.

Hazards to Human Environment:

A rapidly growing population creates many problems. On one side, we are facing the problem of attainment of self-sufficiency in food while on the other side, we are facing rapidly decreasing agricultural resources especially the problem of getting water shortage. Fertile lands are being turned into barren ones. We must know all these hazards. We must evaluate them and we must find some adequate solution to eradicate these hazards. Today, our environment is facing following major hazards:

  1. Salinity and water logging
  2. Deforestation
  3. Desertification
  4. Increase in environmental pollution


  1. Salinity and Water Logging:

The excess of underground water gives rise to water logging whereas salinity is caused by lack of underground water. At present, about 20 million acres of land in Pakistan is suffering from salinity and water logging. It is not only affecting the fertility of the soil and we are not getting the desired yield from the crops but environmental pollution is also increasing.

Causes of Salinity and Water Logging:

Following are the major causes of salinity and water logging:

  1. Seepage of canal water into the ground
  2. Uneven fields
  • Old and traditional methods of irrigation
  1. Repetition of same crops

Measure took by the Government to control the problems of salinity and water logging:

The Government of Pakistan has taken the following measures to control the problems of salinity and water logging:

  1. By the installation of tube-wells. The water table goes down. The water obtained by tube wells brings a decrease in water logging
  2. The banks of canals and water channels are strengthened so that water may not seep into the ground.
  3. Introducing a proper system of irrigation fields.
  4. Establishment of laboratories for water and soil testing
  5. Training and counselling of farmers


  1. Deforestation:

For the mild climate in a country, 20 t0 25 per cent of its total area must consist of forests. But in our country, there are forests only 5 percent of its total area. No increase has been seen in the area of forests since long. There are many reasons for the shortage in forests. Some important reasons are given below:

  1. Excessive cutting of trees
  2. Increase in wood timber needs due to increasing in population.
  3. Increase in salinity and water logging
  4. Diseases of trees
  5. Decrease in rainfall
  6. Breaking out of fires in forests
  7. Environmental pollution
  8. Shortage in river water

The decrease in forests given rise to the following problems:

  • A decrease in the income of the government
  • Increase in soil erosion
  • Climatic changes
  • Decrease in water shortage capacity of dams due to sedimentation
  • Decrease in wildlife
  • Deterioration in environmental beauty and attraction
  • Increase in environmental pollution

Steps Taken by the Government:

               The Government is striving hard to increase the area of the forests. The Government takes many steps every year. Some of them are given below:

  1. Tree plantation campaign is launched twice a year.
  2. Government imports various kinds of seeds. Nurseries are grown with the help of these seeds and plants are provided to the people to create the trend of growing trees.


  1. Desertification:

Allah Almighty has blessed Pakistan with the wealth of fertile land but the fertile in changing into deserts. Following are some of the important reasons for this decrease.

  1. When we grow the same crops on a piece of land repeatedly, it lessens its fertility. Due to it, the land becomes barren and turns into desert.
  2. Due to expensive grazing in the fields, the vegetation is uprooted and it changes land into desert.
  • The use of poor methods of cultivation; cutting of trees; rapidly increasing soil erosion are also causing of desertification.
  1. Salinity, water logging and fast-growing population are also a cause of turning natural land into deserts.
  2. When forests are cut down to construct buildings, factories and roads, the natural land suffers a lot.
  3. When natural land is not properly cared for it, it turns into deserts.


  1. Environmental Pollution and its Types of Pollution:

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes changes in many ways. The pure and natural environment is inevitable for the proper growth of all living organisms on the earth. The increase in the human population is directly proportional to the increase of human needs of life. It means the more human population; the more human needs will be there. This is creating problems like environmental pollution.

Types of Environmental Pollution:

  1. Air Pollution
  2. Water Pollution
  • Soil Pollution
  1. Noise Pollution


  1. Air Pollution:

Pure air is essential for all the creatures and vegetations. But with every passing day, it is becoming harder and harder to get pure air. Some important causes of air pollution are given below:

  • Smoke:

It includes the smoke rising from the factories, houses, vehicles, brick kilns, fire and cigarettes.

  • Harmful Gases:

These include chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides sprayed at home and such gases coming out of factories and vehicles are injurious to health.

  • Dust:

It includes winds, cyclones and small dust particles that are blown into the air.

  1. Water Pollution:

Like air, water is also an essential element for life. Although three fourth of our earth is covered with water, yet according to research, only 3 percent of it is drinkable. Day by day, water is becoming polluted. Some important causes of this pollution are as under.

  1. The polluted water of houses and industries is released into rivers and canals. It had a biocidal effect on crops as well as aquatic life.
  2. The polluted water of the houses, through the sewerage system, seeps into the ground and pollutes the underground water.
  3. The drainage water is released into rivers and canals. It polluted the water.
  4. When pesticides are sprayed on crops, they are absorbed into the ground. This also makes the underground water polluted.
  5. Various kinds of chemical fertilizers are used for agricultural purposes. They are absorbed into the ground to make underground water polluted.

Effects of Water Pollution:

Water Pollution is increasing the disease in open areas. The number of patients is increasing day by day because people are suffering from the diseases caused by water pollution such as cholera, hepatitis, typhoid, skin diseases, eye diseases and many other diseases. Water pollution is not only harmful to human beings but also the aquatic life. It may associate with fishing.

  • Soil Pollution:

Major causes of this pollution are as under:

  1. Releasing used water of houses and factories
  2. Spraying pesticides on crops and using chemical fertilizers
  3. A natural disaster such as earthquakes and floods etc
  4. Salinity and water logging
  5. Heaps of domestic and industrial wastage

Effects of Soil Pollution:

             Soil Pollution may pose a serious threat to food production. The world may suffer from the shortage of food. Fast increasing soil pollution is much harmful to the crops, forests and wildlife.

  1. Noise Pollution:

Unnecessary and unwanted sound is called noise. The noise produced by buses, wagons, cars, rickshaws, aircrafts, drums, hawkers, loud-speakers, different types of horns, machines and other types of noise is increasing noise pollution day by day. This type of pollution is more in cities as compared to villages.




Q15. Explain in how many temperature regions Pakistan is divided?

Ans:   Regions of Pakistan concerning Temperature:

           Pakistan is divided into four regions concerning different land features.

The four regions are as follows:

  • The North and North-West Mountainous region]
  • The Upper Indus Plain
  • The Coastal Area of Lower Indus Valley
  • The Plateau of Balochistan


  1. The North and North-Western Mountainous region:

The winters are extremely cold in the north and north-west areas of Pakistan. The temperature falls below the freezing point. For example, the average temperature of Skardu in January is below freezing-point. In most of the areas, it snows heavily and it is extremely cold. However, the summers are pleasant.

  1. The Upper Indus Plain:

The Upper Indus Plain has a specific land climate. The plain areas are too hot during the summer. Heat-waves appear during day-time in May, June and July. Occasionally it rains along with winds. June is the hottest month. Sometimes, the temperature exceeds 50 C. However, during the winters, the temperature decreases and the weather becomes pleasant.

  1. The Coastal Areas of Lower Indus Valley:

In the coastal areas of Pakistan, land breeze and sea breezes decrease the intensity of heat. Due to this factor, the summers in these areas are not extreme. The average temperature is about 32 C. These areas experience rare cold weather.

  1. The Plateau of Balochistan:

During winters, this region is extremely cold. However, during summers, the temperature is much higher as compared to that of northern hilly areas. The Plateau of Balochistan has the areas like Sibbi where the temperature in summer rises to an unbearable degree. Sometimes, when the winds coming from north reach Balochistan, they cause extremely cold weather.







Q16. Indicate the hurdles in protecting water, soil, vegetation and wildlife.

Ans:   Hurdles in protecting water, Soil, Vegetation and Wildlife:

  1. Water:
  2. Underground water resources are decreasing due to unnecessary use of water. It may cause problems like unavailability of water in future.
  3. Traditional and old methods of irrigation and farming are wasting water. Farmers should be trained as to how to use water.
  4. New water reservoirs (dams etc) are not constructed. It is causing massive water shortage and water wastage.
  5. While irrigating fields, a huge amount of water is wasted because canals and water channels are not cemented.
  6. We have no proper system of water shortage. As a result, a huge quantity of water goes unused and finally falls into the sea.


  1. Soil:
  2. The population of our country is increasing rapidly, whereas cultivated areas are decreasing.
  3. Salinity and water logging are affecting our soil very badly.
  4. Old and traditional methods of farming are used. It is not possible to increase the average yield of crops by using these methods.
  5. The fertility of soil decreases because same crops are grown repeatedly.
  6. Industrial and domestic wastage is affecting our soil.


  • Vegetations:
  1. Unnecessary cutting of trees is resulting in a decrease of forests.
  2. Lack of rainfall is causing problems in growing forests.
  3. Increasing saline and water logging are decreasing the area of forests.
  4. Diseases of trees are also a cause of forests destruction.
  5. Environmental pollution is affecting the forests badly.


  1. Wildlife:
  2. Illegal hunting of wild animals and birds may cause a decline in the population of wildlife.
  3. Rapidly depleting water resources are affecting wildlife.
  4. Cutting down forests is also affecting wildlife.
  5. Rapid growth in the human population is also having negative effects on wildlife.
  6. The number of domestic animals in increasing. It is causing a decrease in pastures. So, the wildlife is affected.




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