Table of Contents
Q1. Write a note on Accession of States and Tribal Areas to Pakistan.
Ans: A large number of Princely states were situated between Pakistan and Indi. Most of the states took their decisions. However, no decision could be made about the fate of Jammu & Kashmir, Junagadh, Manawadar states.
Junagadh and Manawadar States:
The rule of Junagadh and Manawadar announced their accession to Pakistan but India occupied them through military action.
State of Hyderabad Deccan:
Nizam, the ruler of the State of Hyderabad Deccan decided not to join either of the two countries. He intended to give his state an independent status but Indian Army attacked Hyderabad Deccan and forcefully incorporated Hyderabad Deccan into India.
The majority of the people in Hyderabad Deccan, Junagadh and Manawadar were Non-Muslim but a vast majority of the people of Jammu and Kashmir was Muslims.
State of Jammu and Kashmir:
A vast majority of the people of Jammu and Kashmir was Muslims. They wanted accession to Pakistan but as a result of Hindu Raja’s understanding with the Indian rulers, Indian Forces invaded the Kashmir Valley. The people of Kashmir started their fight for freedom. The Indian Army tried to crush the wishes of the people but after meeting with failure in their attempts.
Three wars on Kashmir Issue:
The two countries have fought three wars (1948, 1965 and 1971) so far but the right of self-determination of the people is being ignored. The Kashmir issue could not be settled according to the principles of justice so far.
A Politician of Principle:
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) was a politician of principle. He joined only those states with Pakistan which acceded to Pakistan with their free will. The states of Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Kharan and Makran were among those who acceded to Pakistan.
Independence of Tribal Areas:
Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) announced that tribal areas would continue to enjoy full freedom and their independence and freedom would be looked after. The tribal areas were independent and free in the British rule too. When the tribal leaders, maintaining their independence and freedom, declared their accession to Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) declared brave tribal people defenders of the north-western borders of Pakistan.
Q2. Describe the Salient Features of Construction of 1956.
Ans: Formulation of Constitution:
Geographical factors of Pakistan caused a delay in the formulation of the constitution. The country was divided into two unequal parts. East Pakistan was one unit. It had more population than that of West Pakistan. West Pakistan consisted of four provinces and twelve states. Therefore, the Government dissolved all the provinces and states and merged them into a single province.
Formation of a new Province:
On 14th October, 1955 a new province of West Pakistan came into being. It composed of 12 divisions. The federation consisted of East Pakistan and West Pakistan. This cleared the hindrances which were being experienced in the way of representation.
First Government of West Pakistan:
Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani was made the first Governor of West Pakistan.
First Chief Minister of West Pakistan:
Dr. Khan Sahib was the first Chief Minister of this province.
One Unit of West Pakistan:
This unit continued till 1970. After the establishment of one unit of West Pakistan, the task of the formulation of the constitution became easier to a great extent.
Formulation of the Constitution:
The first constituent Assembly had already done a lot in this connection. Chaudhary Muhammad Ali availed of the work already done and formulated such a formula which the second constituent Assembly consisting of all the political groups and provinces expressed their consensus.
Promulgation of the first constitution:
The draft of the new constitution was presented in the Assembly on 9th January, 1956. After the final approval by the Governor-General, it was promulgated in the country as the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March, 1956. The salient features of this constitution are as under:
Salient Features of Constitution of 1956:
- Written Constitution:
The Constitution of 1956 was a written constitution. It was not a detailed constitution. The Constitution of 1956 consisted of 234 articles, which were divided into 13 parts and 6 schedules. The Objective Resolution was included in the Constitution as a preamble:
- Flexible Constitution:
This constitution was flexible. It had the flexibility to bring changes according to the changing circumstances. The constitution could only be amended through a process requiring the amendment to be passed by at least a two-thirds majority of the National assembly and authentication by the President.
- Federal Constitution:
The constitution provided for a federal system in the country. Federation consisted of two provinces i.e. West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Powers were divided between the centre and the provinces. The subjects were divided into three lists; The Federal List, The Provincial List, and the Concurrent list. Both, the Central and Provincial government had the jurisdiction of legislation regarding the concurrent list. The provinces were given autonomy to a great extent.
- Parliamentary System:
The Constitution of 1956 provided for a parliamentary form of government. The president was the head of state and the Prime Minister the head of government. The President had the nominal powers. The real powers rested with the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister was authorized to appoint his cabinet but he and his cabinet were answerable for their policies and actions before the National Assembly. The President was to be elected by the members of both the National and Provincial Assemblies.
- Unicameral Legislature:
Under this Constitution, the unicameral legislature was introduced. The only house of parliament, the National Assembly, was to consist of 300 members, 150 members each from West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Ten seats were reserved for women, five for each wing. The Assembly was elected for a tenure of five years.
- Independence of Judiciary:
The independence of the judiciary was guaranteed in this Constitution. Supreme Court shall be the highest court. Two high courts, one in each province, shall be established. The Chief Justice of Pakistan shall be appointed by the President, and the other judges shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice. The Judges shall have the security of their services. A judge could be removed only by the President after an address by the National Assembly, two-thirds of the members concurring.
- Single Citizenship:
The citizens of Pakistan shall have only single citizenship. All the citizens shall be called Pakistanis. In America, the people enjoy dual citizenship i.e. one citizenship of Central Government the other of the Governments of the states whereas, in Pakistan, the Constitution established the principle of single citizenship.
- Fundamental Rights:
The citizens shall have all the rights as are guaranteed in the Charter of the United Nations. All citizens shall be equal before the law. They shall enjoy social, political and economic rights. The rights of the citizens shall have judicial protection. In case of violation of these rights, the victim shall be free to go to the court.
- Official Languages:
Under the Constitution of 1956, Urdu and Bengali were both accepted as state languages, while English was to remain the official language for the first 25 years.
- Constitutional Institutions:
Under this Constitution, various constitutional institutions were established. Among these institutions, Islamic Research Institute, Public Service Commission, Chief Election Commissioner and auditor General are worth-mentioning. All these institutions were authorized to work in their respective scopes.
Q3. Narrate causes of Martial Law 1958.
Ans: Ayub Khan Era 1958-1969:
Martial Law 1958:
General Muhammad Ayub Khan deposed Iskander Mirza in October 1958. He imposed Martial Law and justified his actions on some ground. Some important causes of this Martial Law are given below:
- Political Conflict:
After the establishment of Pakistan, conflict of power gave birth to grouping in the Muslim League. Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad took advantage of this conflict and dissolved Assembly twice. Thus, political conflict paved the way for the first Martial Law in the country.
- Poor Economic Conditions:
Political instability and poor economic situation were prevailing in the country. Despite being an agricultural country, the country experienced a food shortage. The economic situation was so poor that in some areas famine-like situation arose.
- Lack of Political Leadership:
Pakistan lost capable political leadership after the deaths of Quaid-e-Azam (Rahmatullah) Liaquat Ali khan and Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy and such people got control of the country as could neither built national unity among people nor solve the problems of the people.
- Smuggling and Nepotism:
Some other causes of Martial Law included smuggling, black marketing, nepotism and obtainment of undue privileges. No one was mere to solve the problems of the people. The middle class was living a miserable life. The system of the entire country was plunged into chaos.
- Role of Bureaucracy:
Bureaucracy manifested the most irresponsible attitude and played its role In failing democracy in the country. Being influential, lust for power was born in their hearts which caused the imposition of Martial Law.
- Ayub’s Khan Politics:
Politicians were involved inputting legs of each other. So, there was political instability in the country. In these circumstances, Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad included General Ayub Khan as Defence Minister in the cabinet. It created uncertainty.
- Provincial Prejudices:
Thriving provincial prejudices also resulted in the imposition of Martial Law. Politicians, without caring for national security, instigated the public sentiments/
- Political Instability:
Six cabinets were formed by two Governor-General from 1953 to 1958. Political instability and failure of the parliamentary system resulted in a political crisis. The people developed hatred towards politicians. They lost their trust in the democratic process that brought Martial Law.
- Delay in Elections:
No General Elections were held in first eleven years of Pakistan. Elections were held only in the provinces one by one. After the Constitution of 1956 was passed, it was hoped that General Elections would be held within one year but it could not be done.
Q4. Write a note on the effects and results of Election 1965.
Ans: Election of Basic Democrats:
The Then President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan Ayub Khan, under the system of Basic Democracies, conducted elections to elect 80,000 Basic Democrats in 1960 and got his Presidency confirmed by these members of Basic Democracies.
Team of the members of Basic Democracies was going to expire in 1965. So, they were re-elected in November 1964.
Under the Constitution of 1962, these members formed Electoral College for the election of President, National and Provincial Assemblies. Ayub Khan announced that Presidential elections would be held in January 1965.
Winner of Election:
According to public opinion, Ayub Khan won the election through indirect Method of Election, manipulation and rigging. So, the presidential Elections 1965 was against the wishes of the people.
Effects of Elections 1965:
Criticism on Basic Democracies System:
People began to criticize the Basic Democracies System introduced by Ayub Khan. It was openly said that no one could win elections against Ayub Khan in the prevailing system.
Rejection of the System:
Ayub Khan strangulated democracy. Therefore, the people rejected this system. This brought a tremendous decline in Ayub’s Khan popularity.
Coordination Campaign Against Ayub Khan:
Basic Democracies System proved an important factor of Ayub Khan’s downfall. All the political parties of opposition blamed Ayub Khan of manipulation in these so-called Elections and launched a public coordination campaign for the restoration of democracy in the country.
Q5. Give a brief account of the causes of the Indo-Pak War 1965.
Ans: Indo-Pak War 1965:
India committed open aggression against Pakistan to materialize its expansionist intentions and attacked Pakistan on the night of 6 September. Although Pakistan had far less military and economic resources as compared to those of India, yet the Armed Forces of Pakistan, filled with the spirit of Jihad, forced an enemy many times bigger than it to face a humiliating defeat. A brief account of the causes of the September 1965 war lasted for 17 days is given below:
- India, intoxicated with power, started a war against China in 1962 and was defeated badly. Afterwards, to remove this stigma, India tried to occupy the disputed territory of Rann of Kutch but had to face a total defeat. Thus, to restore its lost dignity, India started a war against Pakistan.
- General Elections were to be held in India. Congress wanted to win these elections. It decided to conquer Pakistan to get votes from the voters.
Q6. Briefly describe estimated expenditure and achievement of 2nd Five Year Development Plan.
Ans: Estimated Expenditure for the plan:
It was estimated that Rs 23 billion were needed to achieve the objectives and targets of the Second Five Year Plan. It was estimated that Rs 12.4 billion would be spent on the public sector, Rs 3.8 billion in the semi-public sector and Rs 6.8 billion on the private sector.
Under this Plan, the pace of economic growth of the country remained quite satisfactory. In some sectors, the higher growth rate was witnessed as compared to the estimated rates.
The points given below attract our attention when we analyze the plan.
- National Gross Income exceeded even beyond 30 %
- Exports were increased at a rate of 7 % per annum
- In the industrial sector, more than 15 % of growth was recorded.
- In the agriculture sector, more than 15 % of growth was recorded.
Importance of the Plan:
The Second Five Year Plan occupies special importance in the economic planning of the country because while preparing this Plan, the drawbacks of the First Five Year Plan were taken into account. So, the drawbacks were rectified and special care was taken in the evaluation of national resources. The success of this Plan proved a source of encouragement. It helped a lot in future planning.
Q7. Briefly describe the achievements and status of 3rd Five Year Plan.
Ans: Achievements of the Plan:
The above-stated objectives and particulars show that the 3rd Five Year Plan had a lot of merits when we analyze its growth, its synopsis is as under:
- An increase of 9.5 % was expected in exports but only 7 % increase could be possible.
- The pace of growth in agriculture remained lower than the expected pace the target fixed was 4.5 %.
- In the industrial sector, the target fixed was 13 % but only 9 % increase could be made possible.
Feature of the plan:
The Third Five Years Plan could not succeed fully. In most of the factors, it could not reach its pre-fixed targets.
Reason of Failure:
The 3 Five Year Plan was surrounded/ enveloped by unfavourable circumstances from the very beginning.
A severe drought was experienced during the first two years. It affected crops badly.
Indo Pak War 1965:
Defence expenditures increase because of Indo Pak War 1965. It causes a reduction in the to proceed resources for development expenditure.
The decrease in foreign aid:
A decrease of 27 % was also noted in foreign aid. Agricultural output decreased too.
The rate of growth (%) in Industrial and agricultural sector 1958-69
|Year||Large Scale Industrial||Small Scale Industries||Agriculture|
Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 1984-85
This table shows that during this period large scale industries flourished while the rate of growth of small scales industries remained either stagnant or below the desired growth. The agriculture sector continued to suffer fluctuations continuously.
Q8. Write a note on Yahya Khan Regime 1969-71.
Ans: Tenure of Ayub Khan:
President General Muhammad Ayub Khan ruled almost ten years.
Many reforms were implemented during his Government. The country made much progress in the field of industry. According to the constitution, all the powers rested with the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The people launched an aggressive movement against the rule of General Muhammad Ayub Khan and the situation seemed to be running out of his control. Keeping in view the situation, Martial Law was once more imposed in the country.
Q9. Write a note on the result of Elections 1970.
Ans: Result of Elections 1970:
Awami League, the party of Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman, won 167 out of 169 seats (including 7 seats of women) from East Pakistan in the General Elections of 1970. Noor-ul-Amin and Tridev Roy were the only two non-Awami League 4 candidates who won the election. From West Pakistan, Pakistan Peoples Party of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto got clear majority by winning 88 out of 144 seats (including 5 seats of women). The remaining seats were won by the other political parties. Conflict of power created a new situation in the country.
Q10. Describe Separation of East Pakistan and the Emergence of Bangladesh.
Ans: Separation of East Pakistan:
Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman mounted pressure to establish his government while Pakistan People’s Party opposed it strongly. General Muhammad Yahya Khan’s wish to cling to the government further worsened the situation.
In the meantime, Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in state affairs. Blood shedding, non-cooperation, refusal to pay taxes, demonstration of strikes, a boycott of courts and not going of officials to their respective job places became the daily routine.
Appointed General Tikka Khan:
General Tikka Khan was appointed Governor East Pakistan to control the situation but the situation continued to deteriorate every day. In the meantime, Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman established a parallel government with the unlawful help of India.
On 23 March, 1947 Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman hoisted the flag of independent Bangladesh at his residence. Sheikh Mujeebur Rahman was arrested. This further worsened the situation. The civil war reached its peak.
Separation of East Pakistan:
No instant and effective operation could be done in East Pakistan because of the vast distance of land as well as disconnected air communication and non-cooperation of the local people. Consequently, our army had to surrender. Eventually, India succeeded in achieving her objectives and East Pakistan appeared on the map of the world with the name of Bangladesh on 16th December, 1971.