Table of Contents
Subjective Type Questions with Answers
Q1. In how many temperature zones Pakistan is divided? Explain each
Pakistan is divided into four major temperature zones based on temperature zones. These zones are:
- North Western Mountain regions of Pakistan
- Upper Indus plain
- Lowe Indus plain
- The Balochistan Plateau
The climate of Pakistan varies widely with topography but is generally continental in type. In the mountain regions of the north and west, the temperature falls below freezing during the winter. In the Indus plan area temperature range between 32 and 49 C in summer the winter average is about 13 C. Throughout most of Pakistan rainfall is scarce. The Punjab region receives the most precipitation- more than 508 mm (20 in) per year. The arid regions of the south-east and south-west receive less than 127 mm (5 in) annually. The most rain falls between July and September.
North Western Mountain Regions
In these regions, winter sustains for four months. In these areas, at times mercury falls below at 0 C.
Upper Indus Plain
This division includes the province of Punjab and major part of NWFP.
Summer in Upper Indus Plain
It is extremely hot in June and July, dust storms blow in this region, tree leaves become dry and flowers away. In certain areas, June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993 when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 C.
Winter in Upper Indus Plain
Most areas in Upper Indus Plain experience fairly cool winters, often accompanied by rain. Women and men for warmth wear woollen shawls because few homes are heated. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April when the summer heat sets in. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as ‘barsat’, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late in October.
Lower Indus Plain and Coastal Area
Coastal areas of Pakistan form the lower Indus plain. Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi is in this region. Due to the cool breeze blowing from the sea, in an area of about 80 km of the coast is moderate throughout the year.
Summer in the lower Indus
The temperature is also more uniform in these areas ranging from an average daily low of 18°C to 28°C from January to July. This year the lowest temperature was recorded at 7°C.
During summer evenings the temperature varies from 18°C of 34°C. Although the summer temperature does not get as high as those in Punjab, the high humidity causes the residents a great deal of discomfort.
The Balochistan Plateau
Balochistan Plateau lies in the East 0f Sulaiman range. The average altitude is about 2,000 ft. The physical features of the plateau are very varied but mountains, plateaus and basins predominate the scene.
The winters In Balochistan Plateau
The winters are extremely cold in Balochistan plateau. Mercury drops below at 0°C at certain points due to cold northern winds.
Summers in Balochistan Plateau
The summers are immensely hot in this area because the dry and bare mountains absorb heat and retain high temperature for long. The hottest point is Sibbi and Jacobbad
Q2. Write an essay on imbalanced economic growth and regional imbalance.
Economic disparities are found amongst the different regions of Pakistan. Some of these disparities are due to natural resources while others can be ascribing to bad planning and faulty management of affairs.
Population and Area of Pakistan Provinces
The population and area of Pakistan’s four provinces have been recorded in the lines to follow:
|Population||7.36 crore||3.41 crore||61 lac||1.77 crore|
|Area the province covers||2015,344 sq km||140,914 sq km||74,521 sq km||342,190 sq km|
The above chart shows how unevenly the population of Pakistan has been divided. Out of the 23 most populous cities of Pakistan, only one Quetta is situated in Balochistan, only one Karachi in Sindh and the remaining populous cities are in Punjab.
The income of the Provinces
According to the latest available statistics, Sindh has the highest per capita income rate in the country. It is three times higher than that of NWFP, one and a half time higher than Punjab, and double than that of Balochistan. The income of Punjab is double than that of NWFP.
Industrial Development in Various Provinces
There is also disequilibrium concerning industrial development. Karachi and Hyderabad are the industrial centres in Sindh. Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala and Faisalabad are the industrial centres. But still, NWFP and Balochistan are underdeveloped as regards industry is concerned.
The government has declared Balochistan and NWFP as tax-free zones to develop industries in these areas.
Provision of the Basic Requirements of Life
Provision of the basic requirements of life has a direct bearing on economic development. Referred to as infrastructure, these basic requirements include railways, roadways, telephone, telegraph, television, electronic networks, newspapers and postal and courier services etc. These facilities are mostly provided in Punjab Sindh. The other provinces are mainly deprived of these facilities.
Feudalism and Bureaucracy
Feudalism and bureaucracy are a hindrance towards regional peace these are the causes of regional imbalance.
This state of affairs may prove explosive for national life. To bring about substantial change, comprehensive social and political transformation is required; broadening of the economic base of the society with strengthen the deprived classes and weaken the oppressors. Economic development can only take place in an environment of peace and tranquillity. We should follow the tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) granted all the demands of the opponents, fair or unfair, to achieve peace for his people.
Q3. Bring about the impact of climate on human life?
Although the country is in the monsoon region, it is arid, except for the southern slopes for the Himalayas and the sub-Motainous tract, which have a rainfall from 76 to 127 cm. Balochistan is the driest part of the country with an average rainfall of 21 cm. On the southern ranges of the Himalayas, 127 cm of precipitation takes place, while under the lee of these mountains (Gilgit and Baltistan) in fall is hardly 16 cm. Rainfall also occurs from western cyclonic disturbances originating in the Mediterranean.
It is appreciably in the western mountains and the immediate for lying area; here the rainfall average ranges from 27 to 76 cm. The contribution of these western disturbances to rainfall over the plains is about 4 cm. A large part of the precipitation in the northern mountain system is in the form of snow, which feeds the rivers. The all-pervasive aridity over Most of Pakistan, the predominant influence on the life and habitat of the people, coupled with the climatic rhythm, characteristic of a monsoon climate, are conducive to the homogeneity of the land.
The four well-marked seasons in Pakistan are:
- Cold season (December to March)
- Hot season (April to June)
- Monsoon season (July to September)
- Post-monsoon season (October and November)
The cold season sets in by the middle of December. This period is characterized by fine weather, bracing air-low humidity and large diurnal range of temperature. Winter disturbances in this season accordingly cause fairly widespread rain. Average minimum and maximum temperatures are 4 C and 18 C, though on occasions the mercury falls well below freezing point. This winter sun is glorious. The hot season is usually dry. Relative humidity in May and June varies from 50 per cent in the morning to 25 per cent or less in the afternoon. The temperature soars to 40 C and beyond. The highest recorded temperature at Jacobabad in June is 53 C. While the interior is blazing hot, the temperature along with the sea Coast Rangers between 25 C to 25 C, but the humidity persists around 70 to 80 per cent.
The south-west monsoon reaches Pakistan towards the beginning of July and establishes by the middle of the month. The strength of the monsoon current increases from June to July; it then remains steady and starts retreating towards the end of August, though occasionally, it continues to be active even in September when some of the highest floods of the Indus Basin have been recorded.
In October, the maximum temperature is of the order of 34°C to 37°C all over Pakistan, while the nights are fairly cool with the minimum temperature around 16°C. In November, both the maximum and minimum temperatures fall by about 6°C and the weather becomes pleasant.
Q4. What is the importance of the Central Asian States concerning their relationship with Pakistan?
The most important of the central Asian states are Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Whereas Tajikistan is a poor, conflict-ridden and Persian-speaking country under Russian tutelage, Turkmenistan is a resource-rich, Turkic and primarily nomadic country that has deposited a document of permanent neutrality with the United Nations. Uzbekistan is feared by most of its neighbours and has come to play the role of regional power in Central Asia.
Two Main Concerns of the Central Asian Countries
To Central Asia, two main concerns arise out of Afghanistan, concerns that are intimately linked with these states’ relations with Pakistan. The first concerns security; the second in economic.
Pakistan’s relations with Central Asian Countries
Pakistan enjoys close and cordial relations with the Central Asian Republics, which are rested in shared history, culture and traditions. Since their independence in 1922, Pakistan’s relations with these states could not flourish as desired due to divergent views on Afghanistan and Pakistan’s relations with the Taliban regime. Therefore, despite many high-level visits and agreements signed, we were not able to lay down a solid foundation to intensify our economic and political relationship. However, affairs are on the mend.
Pakistan Helps Central Asian Countries
The central Asian countries are undeveloped in the trade because they have less trading facilities. On the other hand, God had bestowed Pakistan with the gift of warm water seaports. Pakistan’s maintains two fine seaports i.e. Karachi and Port Qasim. In the same manner indeed in the days of the defunct Soviet Empire. Goods consigned for these states are first unloaded from ships at Pakistan’s seaports and reloaded on road transport to reach their destination in Afghanistan, Russia and other Central Asian states. With a purpose to expenditure and expand transit facilities, an enormous network of motorways was planned during the last decade of the twentieth century.
Re-establishing trust for Pakistan in Central Asia may take time, but its northern neighbours cannot ignore Pakistan’s geopolitical and geo-economic position. Economic and trade ties are set to increase rapidly, and funds channelled to the rebuilding of roads links and pipelines could speed up this process. If Islamabad, this time, keeps in mind the sensitivities of the Central Asian States, its role may gradually be restored to that of influential regional power.
Q5. What is the importance of Pakistan from a geographical and strategic point of view?
Pakistan is situated in the continent of Asia between 23.300 and 26.450 latitude (North) and 610 and 75.450 longitude (East). India is situated on Pakistan’s Eastern border; China is lies to the north-east while Afghanistan is situated in the north-west. In the north, only a narrow belt of 15 miles in Afghanistan, called “Wakhan”, separates Pakistan from Russia. To the West lies Iran and in the South is the Arabian Sea.
Area and Population
The total area of the population is 796,096 sq. km and its population is about 130 million according to 1998 census. Pakistan comprises of four provinces, viz, Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and the NWFP Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.
Importance of Pakistan’s location
Karachi as an Important Port
The industrial progress of the Western countries depends upon the oil of the Gulf States. This oil is carried through the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Karachi is an important port of the Arabian Sea. The Foreign policy of Pakistan can, therefore, affect the movement of oil.
Control Over Warm Water
The seas of Russia are mostly snowcapped are not fit for navigation for the larger part of the year. To take an active part in international trade, Russia dreams to have control over the warm water of the Indian Sea. But Pakistan is a hurdle in its way and thus enjoys an important position in the scene of international trade.
Central Position in the Muslim World
By its location, Pakistan occupies a central position in the Muslim countries of the world. Pakistan is located during the extensive chain of the Muslim nations spreading from Morocco in the west to Indonesia in the Far East. Appreciating this esteemed position, the Vice President of Libya Adus-Salam Jalud during his visit to Pakistan in 1978, called Pakistan “the heart of the Muslim world.”
Importance in World Politics
Pakistan came into being only two years after the termination of the Second World War. In the post-war period, the USA and the USSR had emerged as superpowers. The two countries struggled of the smaller countries of the world and enhance their respective spheres of influence. During this period, generally referred to as “Cold War Era”, Pakistan decided to side with the American block. Pakistan also joined SEATO and CENTO, the anti-Russia military alliances formed under the American umbrella. Notwithstanding the merits and demerits of this policy, we must admit that Pakistan could rise to this position of superb importance in world politics only due to her strategic location.
The leadership of the Third World
Due to her unconditional loyalty with the American block Pakistan could not attain a respectable position amongst the non-aligned and the third world countries. In the later period when Pakistan adopted a policy of the year 1979, the then president of Pakistan was designated to represent the Muslim World at Havana Conference of non-aligned countries. In 1980 he was again given the honour of addressing the UN General Assembly at the spokesman of the entire Muslim World.
Despite her meagre resources, Pakistan took a firm stand against the expansionist designs of the Soviet Union and offered sustained resistance to the Russian intrusion in Afghanistan. The entire free world now appreciates that it was Pakistan’s heroic fighting spirit that defeated the Russian designs in Afghanistan and lead to the ultimate dismemberment of the superpower.
Centre of Trade and Transit Routes
Pakistan is placed in a highly strategic position on the world map. It is located in the centre of the road and rail links between the countries of the Far East and Iran, Turkey and Europe.