Table of Contents
Subjective Type Questions with Answers
Q1. Give an account of the Muslim struggle from 1857 to the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906.
The following landmark events constitute the Muslim struggle for independence from 18857 to the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906.
- British Ascendancy
- The Aligarh Movement
- Extremist Hindu Movements
- The Partition of Bengal
- The Shimla Deputation
- Establishment of the Muslim League
In the year 1857, The British ascendancy over Indian ended the eight hundred-year Muslim rule. In 1858, India was given under the direct control of the British Crown. The failure of the 1857 War of Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event on them. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed deliberately a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties and estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighters were confiscated and conscious efforts were made to close all avenues of honest living for them.
The Aligarh Movement
The end of the Mughal Empire and the consequent plight of the Muslims impelled Sir Sayed Ahmad Khan to plant a sampling of Aligarh Movement in India. Sir Sayed had the fore-sightedness to realize the benefits of modern education and the wholesome effect that it would eventually have on the lot of the Sub-continent’s Muslims. Muslims could not play their due part in society without utilizing to the fullest the opportunities offered by the new western culture and education. Sir Sayed formed many educational institutions under the flag of the Aligarh Movement.
The Extremist Hindu Movements
The extremism Hindus made life a misery for the Muslims of India. The Muslims were maltreated and deprived of the rights. Muslims were robbed of their properties and homes. There was no shelter for them. The slaughter of cow was said to be a heinous crime against the law. The slaughter of cow was said to be a heinous crime against the law. The Muslims were not free to perform their religious rites. The Anti-Muslim movement “Arya Smaj” flourished in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The movement aimed at reconverting the Muslims to Hinduism. Bankim Chandra wrote a novel Anand Matth. This novel provoked Muslims religious sentiments. Anti-Muslims epic Bande Matrum was a part of this novel.
The partition of Bengal
Lord Curzon made Bengal an independent province in 1905. This step was taken mainly due to administrative reasons. Bengal was a vast province and could not be handled properly unless divided into two parts- East Bengal and West Bengal. This partition of Bengal changed the fate of the Bengali Muslims. They began to prosper as a nation. The Hindus could not digest the death of their monopoly. They could not see the Muslim nation taking feet. They behaved very aggressively and revolted against the partition of Bengal. This attitude of the Hindus led the Muslims of India to form All India Muslim League.
The Simla Deputation and the Demand for separate Homeland
A deputation of Muslim leaders called on Lord Minto, the viceroy, On October 1, 1906, at Simla, Sir Agha Khan, the head of the deputation, presented a memorandum in which he requested for the basic political, economic, cultural and other rights for the Muslims. He also introduced a system of separate electrolate for the Muslims. The Viceroy’s reaction was favourable
Establishment of the Muslim League
In December 1906, the yearly meeting of Muslim Educational Conference was held at the house of Nawab Samiullah Khan of Dhaka. All the towering politicians of Indian participated in that meeting. In this meeting, Nawab Slaimullah Khan presented a resolution and all the member of meeting accepted it. As a result of this resolution, the Muslim League came into existence on December 30, 1906, in Dhaka. It was decided that the main office of the Muslim League would be set up in Aligarh. Sir Agha Khan was elected the first president of Muslim League.
The objectives of the Muslim League were the following:
- To create an understanding between the government and the Indian Muslims and to promote the feelings of loyalty among them.
- To co-ordinate with the other nations and political parties for the general welfare of the people.
- To protect the rights of the Muslim nation and to interact with the Government and other agencies for this purpose.
Q2. Give a background of the Aligarh Movement and a summary of its objectives.
In the year 1857, the British ascendancy over India ended the right hundred years of Muslim rule. In 1858, India was given under the direct control of the British Crown. The failure of the 1857 War, Independence had disastrous consequences for the Muslims as the British placed all the responsibility for this event. Determined to stop such a recurrence in future, the British followed desperately a repressive policy against the Muslims. Properties are estates of those even remotely associated with the freedom fighter were confiscated and conscious efforts were made to close.
The Aligarh Movement
The end of the Mughal Empire and the consequent plight of the Muslim impelled Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan to plant a sapling Aligarh Movement in India. Sir Sayyed Ahmad had the fore-sightedness to realize the benefits of modern education and the wholesome effect and that it would eventually have on the lot of the Sub-continent’s Muslims. Muslim could not play their due part in society without utilizing the fulled the opportunities offered by the new western culture and education. Sir Sayyed formed many educational institutions under the flag of the Aligarh Movement.
The reactions of the Muslims of India towards Aligarh Movement
Sir Sayyed’s conciliatory efforts, taken collectively, are known as Aligarh Movement. A large section of the Indian Muslims appreciated Sir Sayyed’s efforts. They stood by his side. They contributed both monetarily and morally to prosper Aligarh Movement. They supported Sir Sayyed by providing him funds for the projects of the Aligarh Movement.
Objectives of the Aligarh Movement
The following were the objectives of the Aligarh Movement:
- Conciliation among the Indian Muslims and the British.
- Education of the Indian Muslims
- Loyal Mohammedans.
- The friendship between Muslims and other Indian nations.
Conciliation among the Indian Muslims and the British
The British Government had snatched the crown from the Muslims. So, they had a natural enmity against the Muslims. Secondly, they considered Muslims to be the lone wagers of the Mutiny. The Hindus were cunning enough to hurry good terms with the newly formed British government. Muslims on the other hand detested the invaders who deprived them of their rule over India. Sir Sayyed felt that these strained relationships between the Indian Muslims and the British government would harm none but the Muslims. So, for the all multi-dimensional of the Indian Muslims, Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan formed the Aligarh Movement. To bring about an atmosphere of compromise and reconciliation was the primary objective of the Aligarh movement. The following works of Sir Sayyed are the proponents of this very object
- Risala Asbada Baghawat-e-Hind: In this Sir Sayyed describes the reasons which led the Muslims to wage a rebellion against the British Government.
- Loyal Mohammedans of India: In this book, Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan highlighted the services of the Muslims who served British interests in the days of Mutiny.
- Tabin-ul-Kalam: This was the Urdu tafseer of the Bible.
Education of the Indian Muslims
The Muslims of India were against the British government system and Western education. So, they preferred to educate their children in the Muslim Dini Madrassa and not according to the demands of the era. On the other hand, the Hindus got their children educated according to the Western patterns. As a result, the Muslims were denied Civil services in the British Government. Thus, pained Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan. He wanted the Indian Muslims should get both religious as well as modern educations. To educate the Muslims according to the demands of the modern age was the objective of the Aligarh movement.
Creating loyalty in the hearts of the Muslim towards the British Crown was the basic objective of the Aligarh Movement. The Muslims of India detested the British because they deprived them of the rule over India. Sir Sayyed wanted the Indian Muslims to accept the new situation and to be loyal to the British Government.
The friendship between Muslims and other Indian Nations
One of the fundamental objectives of the Aligarh movement was to create friendship between the Indian Muslims and other nations residing in India.
Sir Sayyed’s Aligarh Movement was a complete institution in itself. Under the flag of this movement, Sir Sayyed contributed a lot toward the development of the Muslims of India. He established many educational institutions in the far and wide of India and helped the Indian Muslims to be reputed as an educated nation of the region.
Q3. Describe and evaluate Sir Sayyed’s services for the Muslims of India.
It would hardly be an exaggeration to call Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan as the finest and most representative Muslim in the annals of the Sub=continent. Undoubtedly, he was the pioneer of the renaissance and reformist movement. It was he who brought about the social literary and religious awakening among Muslims. It was he which served as the precursor of a neo-classical; movement in Urdu literature and the founder of various liberal institutions. Like John Dewey, he founded a school for the dissemination of modern education. His was truly a versatile personality.
F.W Fernau, a German author, in his book “Muslims on the March” has aptly remarked. “The founder of the Indian Muslim reform movement”, Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Civil Servant. He was born in a family with a long tradition of service to Islam. The family had migrated from Arabia to India in the time of the Great Mughals and had given the Muslim rulers in Delhi a succession of capable administrators.
“Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan brought back in India after a long stay in England the strong impression that the Muslims must make use of Western science and Western ways of thinking if they were not to be hopelessly submerged. The anxiety grew especially great among the hopelessly submerged. The anxiety grew especially great among the Indian Muslims when they found themselves greatly outnumbered by the Hindus.”
Educational Services of Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan
Following are the educational services of Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan
|Aligarh Movement||It expands on the life works of Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan|
|Murad Abad School||1858|
|M.A.O School Aligarh||1875|
|Aligarh Institute Gazette||1966|
|Journal of Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq||1869|
|Muhammadan Educational Conference||1886|
|Political Services||Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan|
|Two Nation theory||Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan is the father of two-nation theory.|
The end of the Mughal Empire and the consequent plight of the Muslim impelled Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan to plant a sapling Aligarh Movement in India. Sir Sayyed had the fore-sightedness to realize the benefits of modern education and the wholesome effect that it would eventually have on the lot of the Sub-continent’s Muslims. Muslims could not play their due part in society without utilizing to the fullest the opportunities offered by the new Western culture education. Sir Sayyed formed many educational institutions under the flag of the Aligarh Movement.
Murad Abad School
Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan established the educational institution, Murad Abad, in 1858.
M.A.O School Aligarh
The M.AO. School, Aligarh was established in 1875. Later on, the institute was upgraded to be a college. In 1920, this institution became Muslim University, Aligarh. In this Institution, Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan hired the services of Sir Arnold, Orison.
Sir Sayyed established an educational institution in Ghazi Pur in 1863. The name of this institution was Scientific Society. The headquarters of this society were shifted to Aligarh in 1876. The purposes of the establishment of this society were:
- To acquire books in other languages.
- To translate them in Urdu.
- To create a balance between modern and Western knowledge.
The services rendered by Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan in the education, society and religion should not make us oblivious of the fact that he was a most distinguished and outstanding writer. He started his journey Tahzib ul Akhlaq for the re-awaking and revival of the Muslim nation. He not only exercised a profound influence on the works of Hali and Shibli but a score of other writers who followed him. He wielded a facile and powerful pen-like Addison, Hazlitt and Stevenson. His essays are full of vivacity and verve with a clear style. In 1869, Sir Sayyed went to England. There he was introduced with the famous English journals Spectator and Teller. He came back in 1870 and published a journal Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq impressed by the style of spectator and teller.
As a thoughtful and enlightened writer on a wide variety of subjects encompassing political, social, religious and literary topics he may rightly be called the father of Urdu prose. He replaced the verbose and bombastic style of writing with an impressive and themselves full of polished periods and fine diction. He was also the forerunner of a new style of declamation. His most famous book is Asar-al-Sanadeed, dealing with 125 historical buildings of Delhi and itself suburbs. This book was translated into French.
Muhammadan Educational Conference
Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan founded the Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1866, which was intended to focus on problems relating to educational and social reconstruction during its first twenty years. This conference was a multi-purpose conference. It served the Muslims community in social, cultural, religious and political fields. This conference later on developed in All India Muslim League. This conference established the following colleges:
- Haleem College, Kanpur
- Islamia College Civil Lines, Lahore
- Islamia College, Peshawar
Aligarh Institute Gazette
In 1966, the Scientific Society of Ghazi Pur published a gazette. This was called “Aligarh Institute Gazette”. This gazette was published in both Persian and English languages so that the Muslims and the Britishers could come closer to each other.
Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan was the member of Imperial Legislative Council. As a member of Imperial Legislative Council, Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan did the following services for the Muslims of India.
- He took the problems of the Indian Muslims very effectively to the Indian Government.
- He demanded separate electorate for the Muslims of India.
- He demanded the number of Muslim seats in Viceroy’s council should be fixed.
- He demanded that only Muslim voters should elect Muslim members.
Urdu Hindi Controversy
In the year 1867, the Hindus of Banaras launched a movement to replace Urdu as an official language with Hindi. Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan strongly opposed this idea and thus he safeguarded Urdu, the sign of Muslim Identity.
Two Nation Theory
Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan, the pioneer of Ideology of Pakistan, used the word ‘Two Nation’ for Hindus and Muslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress hatred, hostility and prejudice for the Muslims. Defining the differences between Hindus and Muslims, Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan said:
“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other”
“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government. Our interest and problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions in one nation.
“Philosophy will be in our right hand, natural science in our left hand and the Islamic Ideology will be on our head.”
After the Hindi-Urdu controversy, Sir Sayyed felt that Hindus and Muslims couldn’t progress as a single nation.
Other of Sir Sayyed’s major works were:
- Journal Asar-us-Sanadeed
- Loyal Muhammadan of India
Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan blended Western Eastern and Islamic education. His theory of education was based on the following statement.
Philosophy will be in our right hand, natural science in the left hand and the Islamic ideology will be on our head.
Q4. Give background and reasons for the establishment of the Muslim League.
After the end of the Congress Raj, it dawned upon the Muslims that Congress is only considerate about the Hindu interests. It was crystal clear then that if they want to safeguard their rights as a nation, they should go to some other platform…. other than Congress.
On December 30th, 1906, the Yearly Meeting of Muslim Educational Conference was held at the house of Nawab Samiullah Khan of Dhaka. All the towering politicians of India participated in that meeting. In this meeting, Nawab Samiullah Khan presented a resolution. This resolution was accepted by all the members of the meeting. As a result of this resolution, the Muslim League came into existence on 30th December 1906 in Dhaka. It was decided that the main office of the Muslim League would be set up in Ali Garh. Sir Agha Khan was elected the first president of the Muslim League.
Causes of the Establishment of the Muslim League
The following were the causes of establishment of Muslim League
- Establishment of Indian National Congress
- Partition of Bengal
- Urdu Hindi Controversy
- Political reforms
- Simla Deputation
Establishment of Indian National Congress
There was only one major political party in India before the birth of the Muslim League.
It was not a national party though it claimed to be so. It was only the Hindu’s party, it was considerate and safeguarded only the interests of the Hindus. The callous behaviour of congress led Muslims to formulate a party of their own.
The Hindu proved prejudiced against the Muslims, the extremist organizations like Shanghtan, Shudhi, Arya Samaj and Hindu Mahasabha engendered the life of the Muslims, to safeguard their own entity as a nation, the Muslims of India decided to form All India Muslim League.
Partition of Bengal
In 1905, Bengal was made an independent province in1905. This changed the fate of the Bengali Muslims. They began to prosper as a nation. The Hindus could not digest the death of their monopoly. They could not see the Muslim nation taking feet. They behaved very aggressively and revolted against the partition of Bengal. This attitude of the Hindus led the Muslims of India to form All India Muslim League.
Urdu Hindi Controversy
During the British raj, Urdu was the national language of India. The Hindus wanted to replace Urdu with Hindi. They also wanted to replace the Arabic script of Urdu in Devnagri in which Hindi was written. These activities endangered the life of Urdu. The Muslims were very perturbed against this situation. They formed Urdu sycophancies. The Muslims knew that assault against Urdu is the assault against the Muslim culture. To heighten the intensity and pitch of their revolt, they formed All India Muslim League.
The Liberal Party won Elections in England and announced that it would implement certain political reforms. The Muslims felt a dire need to form an agenda of their own which they could forward to the British Government as a basis to the expected political reforms. To form an agenda, they first needed to form a platform…. All India Muslim Leagues.
A deputation of Muslim leaders called on Lord Minto, the viceroy, on 1st October 1906 at Simla. Sir Agha Khan, the head of the deputation presented a Memorandum in which he requested for the basic political, economic, cultural and other rights for the Muslims. He also introduced a system of separate electorate for the Muslims. The viceroy’s reaction was favourable. With this, the Muslims of India seriously felt the need to form a political party of their own.
Objectives of All India Muslim Leagues
The objectives of the Muslim League were the following:
- To create an understanding between the government and the Indian Muslims and to promote the feelings of loyalty among them.
- To co-ordinate with the other nations and political parties for the general welfare of the people.
- To protect the rights of the Muslim nation, and to interact with the Government and other agencies for this purpose.
Q5. Give an account of the proposals brought forward for the solution of the Indian problems at different times.
Numerous efforts were brought forward for the solution of the Indian problem. These were made to work out a conciliatory formula, which would satisfy the British, the Hindus and the Muslims at the same time. The following lines cover the chronology of the different proposals was made to resolve the Indian problems:
|1857-58||The first war of Independence also known as Indian Mutiny||The British East Indian Company initially administrated most of the Indian Sub-continent, but the Indian-led Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 seriously challenged British occupation and caused the British government to administer India directly. This near defeat for the British prompted changes in their administration of the Sub-continent and their attitudes towards Indians, particularly Muslims.|
|1885||Establishment of Indian National Congress||Indian National Congress formed as a united front for independence.|
|1905||Partition of Bengal||Lord Curzon made Bengal an Independent province dividing it into two parts” i.e. East Bengal and West Bengal|
|October 1, 1906||Simla Deputation||A deputation of Muslim leaders headed by Sir Agha Khan called on the viceroy on October 1, 1906. Sir Agha Khan present a Memorandum in which he requested for the basic political, economic, cultural and other rights including a system of separate electorate for the Muslims.|
|December 1906||Establishment of All India Muslim League||All India Muslim League founded predominantly representing the Muslim majority areas.|
|1909||Morley-Minto Reforms||In Morley-Minto reforms, the British government agreed to establish separate electorates for Muslims. This was considered as major victories for Muslim League.|
|1910||Partition of Bengal annulled||Partition of Bengal was cancelled on the initiation of the Hindus.|
|1913||The Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League||The Quaid-e-Azam joined Muslim League because the biased attitude of the Indian National Congress disheartened him.|
|1916||Congress-Muslim League Pact (often referred to as the Lucknow Pact)||Lucknow Pact of Congress-Muslim League pact was signed as a result of the Quaid-e-Azam’s efforts for Hindu-Muslim Unity. Because of these of his efforts, the Quaid-e-Azam was entitled as the ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity, by Mrs Sarojni Naedo, an eminent Congress leader.|
|1919||Beginning of the Khilafat Movement||Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment.|
|1920||Non-Cooperation Movement||The Khilafat committee appealed all the Indian to observe a Non-cooperation movement against the British invasion over Turkey. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was elected the leader of the Non-cooperation Movement. This movement was aimed at the total boycott of the government.|
|November 1921||Civil Disobedience||In November 1921, the Khilafat Committee appealed the Indians to break the law and launch civil disobedience. They were asked to refuse to pay the taxes and to disobey the government. About thirty thousand people were arrested on account of civil disobedience.|
|1921||Mopla Uprising||The Arab traders, called Moplas, lived on the South Indian shores. In 1921, there was a local type of clash between the Hindus and the Muslims. The British government used this clash as a means to create a rift between Hindus and the Muslims. The government used force against the Moplas.|
|1922||Chora Chori Incident||Chora Chori was a small town in U.P (Uttar Pardesh), In 1922, an infuriated mob of Chora Chori attacked a police station and set it on fire. As a consequence, 21 policemen were burnt alive. This resulted in the government’s fierce action against the Muslims.|
|1924||Civil Disobedience called off||Mohan Chand Karamchand Gandhi said that the basic charter of the civil disobedience was non-violence. Since the movement had turned into violence. It should be called off. So he called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.|
|1924||Abolition of Khilafat||The final death blow on the Indian Khilafat Movement came when Ata Turk came to power in Turkey and he abolished Khilafat, the cause for which the Muslims of India had been sacrificing their lives for so many years.|
|March 20, 1927||Delhi-Muslim Proposals||The Quaid, seeing that the Hindus did not incline to cooperate with the Muslims, invited the Muslim leaders of India to meet at Delhi under his presidency on March 20, 1927. Thus meeting resulted in Delhi-Muslim proposals, which were unanimously accepted by all the Muslim leaders.|
|December 22, 1928||The Nehru Report||Moti Lal Nehru presented his report on before All-Parties National Convention which opened on December 22, 1928.|
|1929||The Quaid-e-Azam fourteen points||In 1929, Jinnah presented his famous Fourteen points in response to the Nehru Report.|
|1930-32||The Round Table Conference||Round Table Conference was held in London to resolve the Indian issue.|
|1930||Allahabad Address||Allama Muhammad Iqbal delivered his famous address of Allahabad in which he gave the concept of Pakistan.|
|1935||Government of India Act of 1935||This act is still considered as a backbone of civil law in both India and Pakistan.|
|1937||The Congress Raj||In 1937 elections, Congress formed government in India and wrote a new history of atrocities over the Muslims.|
|1937||Punjab Muslim Students Federation demands Pakistan||The Punjab Muslim students federation adopted the demand of a separate homeland as its objective on Allama Iqbal’s incentive.|
|October 1939||End of Congress Raj||The Congress government resigned on the strong protest of the Muslims.|
|December 22, 1939||Deliverance Day||The Muslims of Indian celebrated Deliverance Day on the call of the Quaid-e-Azam on account of the resignation of the Congress Raj.|
|1940||Pakistan Resolution||Muslim League adopts ‘Pakistan Resolution” demanding a separate state for Muslims of Su-continent.|
|1942||Cripps Mission||In 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps arrived in New Delhi for talks with the Indian leaders on the future constitution of India.|
|June 25, 1945||Wavell Plan||Lord Wavell called an All Parties Conference at Simla on June 25, 1945. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell.|
|August 16, 1946||Direct Action Day||Muslim League observes “Direct Action Day” widespread communal rioting spreads to many parts of Sub-continent.|
|December 2, 1945||Elections||The second general elections in India were held in December 1945. The Congress, the All-India Muslim League and several other organizations participated in the elections. The All-India Muslim League captured all the thirty seats reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislative Assembly.|
|February 22, 1946||Elections in Provinces||Out of 495 seats reserved for Muslims in the provincial legislature, Muslim League captured 440 seats.|
|March 24, 1946||Cabinet Mission in India||The Cabinet Mission, headed by Lord Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State, arrived in New Delhi. The other two members of the Mission were Sir Stafford Cripps and Mr A.V. Alexander. The Mission aimed to help India to attain her freedom as speedily and fully as possible.|
|March 16, 1946||Cabinet Mission Plan||The Cabinet Mission Plan recommended that there should be a Union of India consisting of British India and the Indian states, dealing with the subjects of foreign affairs, defence and communication.|
|June 16, 1946||Interim Government||The British government desired that while the constitution-making plan proceeds an interim government, having the support of major political, might be formed at the centre.|
|December 2, 1946||London Conference||To obtain the participation and cooperation of all parties in the Constituent Assembly, the British government invited four Indian leaders to London including Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Mr M.A Jinnah, Mr Liaquat Ali Khan and Sardar Baldev Singh. Lord Wavell was also present at the Conference which continued for four days.|
|August.1947||Quit India Movement||The Indian National Congress decided to start “Quit India Movement” and demanded that the British should immediately withdraw from India. Mr Gandhi advised his people to “do or die” to achieve their aim.|
|June 3, 1947||3rd June Plan||This was a plan for the partition of India prepared by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, in consultation with the British government. It was based on a fundamental principle that the transfer of power should take place according to the wishes of the people.|
|July 18, 1947||Indian Independence Act, 1947||A bill providing independence on July 18, 1947. It provided that “from August 15, 1947, two independent dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan.”|
|August 11, 1947||First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan||Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah arrived in Karachi on August 7, 1947, and addressed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on August 11, 1947, as its first President|
|August 12, 1947||Radcliffe Award||The Boundary Commission appointed under the Indian Independence Act 1947, submitted its report commonly known as the Radcliffe Award.|
|August 15, 1947||Establishment of Pakistan||On August 15, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan Mr Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.|
Q6. Give a background of the Khilafat Movement and a brief account of its major event.
Among the landmarks of our long and arduous struggle for freedom, the Khilafat Movement (1918-1924) stands out as one of the most significant political events.
Background of the Khilafat Movement
The World War I broke out in 1914, UK, USA, France, Russia and Italy went into the alliance against Germany, Austria and Turkey in those days, Turkey was the centre of religious reverence for the Muslims because the ruler of Turkey was treated as Khalifa of the Muslim Ummah. During World War I, the sanctity and safety of Turkey were in great danger. This situation was not only miserable for the Turk nation but the whole Muslim world especially the Muslims of the Sub-continent. The Muslims of India had a hope that one day Turkey will come to free them from the clutches of the British Raj. But during World War I, this ray of hope was struggling with its own life. It looked evident that the Sultan of Turkey would be poisoned and Turkey would lose sovereign status. The boundaries of Turkey were extended to the whole of North Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Hijaz-e-Mokaddas was also in Turkish domain. In case of defeat in the war, both sacred cities Makkah and Madinah could go to the possession of Christian allied forces. Keeping all the apprehensions in view, the Muslims of India, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1947) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the movement. The ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.
Important Events of the Khilafat Movement
The important events of the Khilafat Movement were:
|Establishment of the Khilafat Committee||November 23, 1919|
|Hindu Muslim Unity and Non-cooperation||1919|
|Khilafat Delegation||May 1920|
|The treaty of Sevres||May 1920|
|Civil Disobedience||November 1921|
|Chora Chori Incident||1922|
|Civil Disobedience called off||1922|
|Abolition of Khilafat||1923|
Establishment of Khilafat Committee
To launch an organized mass movement and launch an opinion forming a campaign, an All India Khilafat Committee was formed on November 23, 1919.
Hindu-Muslim Unity and Non-Cooperation
The Khilafat Movement was a platform on which Hindu and Muslims came closer to each other. The Hindus, in the auspices and on the initiative Mohandas Karamchand. Gandhi decided to take stand with the Muslims against British invasion over Turkey. The Hindus decided to launch a Non-cooperating Movement against the government.
In May 1920, a Khilafat delegation headed by Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar set off to London to explain Muslims point of view over the issue of Turkey. The British government refused to give an ear to the demands of the delegation.
The Treaty of Sevres
In May 1920, the Allied forces decided on Turkey’s fate under the treaty made at the banks of Canal Sevres. The Empire was stripped of its occupations in Europe and Arabia.
The Khilafat committee appealed all India to observe a Non-Cooperation movement against the British invasion over Turkey. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was elected the leader of the Non-Cooperation Movement. This Movement was aimed at the total boycott of the government. Under the initiation of this Movement the Indian:
- Government servants resigned services.
- The students quit educational institutions
- The award and titleholders returned their titles and awards to the government.
- Foreign goods were banned.
In November 1921, the Khilafat Committee appealed the Indians to break the law and launch civil disobedience. They were asked to refuse to pay the taxes and to disobey the government. About thirty thousand people were arrested on account of civil disobedience.
The Arab traders, called Moplas, lived on the South Indian shores. In 1921, there was a local type of clash between the Hindus and the Muslims. The British Government used this clash as a means to create a rift between Hindus and Muslims. The government used force against the Moplas. This situation gave a setback to the Khilafat Movement.
Chora Chori Incident
Chora Chori was a small town in U.P. In 1922, an infuriated mob of Chora Chori attacked a police station and set it on fire. As a consequence, 21 policemen were burnt alive. This resulted in the government’s fierce action against the Muslims. The government decided to treat Muslims with an iron hand. This situation hurt the Khilafat Movement.
Civil Disobedience Called Off
Mohan Chand Karamchand Gandhi said that the basic charter of the Civil disobedience was non-violence. Since the movement had turned to violence. It should be called off. So, he called off the Civil Disobedience Movement. This proved fatal for the life of the Khilafat Movement.
The final deathblow on the Indian Khilafat Movement came when Ata Turk came into power in Turkey and he abolished Khilafat, the cause for which the Muslims of India had been sacrificing their lives for so many years.
So far as India is concerned the Khilafat Movement has left an indelible mark on the history of the Sub-Continent. It was the first countrywide agitation of the Indian Muslims with a central organization to guide its course. It transformed the psyche of the people, trained them in political agitation and taught them how to press come to their demands. It brought the Hindus and Muslims on one platform for the first and the last time. Although the Movement failed in its objectives, it had a far-reaching impact on the Muslims of South Asia. After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue, which momentarily forget solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public.
Q7. Examine the impact and outcomes of Tehrik-e-Khilafat in detail.
The Khilafat Movement had left an indelible mark on the history of the Sub-continent. It was the first countrywide agitation of the Indian Muslims with a central organization to guide its course. It transformed the psyche of the people, trained them in political agitation and taught them how to press their demands. The following were the impact and outcomes of the Khilafat Movement.
- Hindu Muslim Unity
- Strong Muslim Leadership
- Hindu-Muslim Antagonism
- Communal Riots
- A step towards the liberation of India
- A step toward Pakistan Movement
- Moral support to the Turks
Hindu Muslim Unity
It brought the Hindus and Muslims on one platform for the first and the last time. The Hindu Muslim Unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation Movements. The Muslims of Soothsayer, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the Movement. The ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.
Strong Muslim Leadership
Although the Khilafat Movement failed in its objectives, it had a far-reaching impact on the Muslims of South Asia. After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue, which momentarily forget solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public.
Hindu Muslim Antagonism
The collapse of the Khilafat Movement was followed by a period of bitter Hindu Muslim antagonism. The Hindus organized two highly anti-Muslim movements, the Shudhi and the Sangathan. The former movement was meant to create solidarity among the Hindus in the event of communal conflict.
In retaliation, the Muslims sponsored the Tabligh and Tanzim organizations to counter the impact of the Shudhi and the Sangathan. In the 1920s, the frequency of communal riots was unprecedented. Several Hindu Muslim Unity Conferences were held to remove the causes of conflict, but it seemed nothing could mitigate the intensity of communalism.
A Step Towards the Liberation of India
Khilafat Movement was an important step towards the liberation of India. The forceful expression of India’s popular sentiments against Imperialism helped the British rulers to understand that it was impossible to keep India under their control forever, they started to make their mind.
A Step Towards Pakistan Movement
The Hindu Muslim antagonism after the collapse of Khilafat movement clarified that Hindu and Muslims cannot be united on a single platform. This consciousness was a step towards the achievement of Pakistan.
Moral Support to the Turks
The efforts of the Indian Muslims for the Turks proved moral support for the fighting Turks. The speeches and statements of the Khilafat leaders were translated in Turkey and were sent to the Turk soldiers to consolidate them and to strengthen their footings over their demands.
Although the Khilafat Movement was a failure on the annals of history, yet it is a great success as regards the recognition of Muslim identity is concerned. Also, this movement was a proponent of the fact that the Muslims of all over the world have been tied in the bond of brotherhood. It was also a proponent of Allama Iqbal’s verse.
Q8. What important events paved way for the adoption of the Lahore Resolution?
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at annual sessions of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the “Pakistan Resolution” was passed. Maulvi Fazlul Haq presented it and Quaid-e-Azam said in his address:
“By all means, Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political lives independently”
The resolution passed in Lahore on March 23, created a scare in the minds of the Congress and the Hindus. They could see that the Muslim League had now openly advocated the division of India into “Independent States”. The Quaid had anticipated the Hindu reaction and had taken organizational steps to face the opposition of the Hindus. He set an example of calm courage and an iron determination to lead the Muslims to their cherished goal of freedom. The Pakistan Resolution released the potential creative energies of the Muslims and even the humblest amongst them made his contribution to the achievement of Pakistan. The Quaid knew that without a well-defined goal that could be understood even by the simples Muslim, there could be no real awakening of the Muslims. The Pakistan Resolution gave them a legible, objective and reachable goal: Pakistan.
Q9. Elaborate salient features of the Lahore Resolutions.
The Lahore resolution is the most significant landmark in the history of our freedom struggle. In March 1940, the Muslims of India adopted a resolution embodying their national objectives and expressing their firm commitment to make all efforts for the achievement of these objectives. Important events and factors that led to the adoption of the Resolution were:
- The Two Nation Theory
- Hindu Extremism
- Allama Iqbal’s Address of Allah Abad
- Atrocities of Congress Raj
- The popularity of the Muslim League
The twenty –seventh session of All-India Muslim League was held at Lahore under the presidentship of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Moulvi Abdul Kasim Fazlul Haq, Chief Minister of Bengal, presented the historic Lahore Resolution, also known as “Pakistan Resolution”. The resolution demanded that the Muslim majority areas as in North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign.
Salient features of Lahore Resolution
The Lahore resolution embodied minimum demands regarding the political status of the Muslims in South Asia. The Muslims resolved in will only accept a constitutional formula, which satisfies the following Muslim demands”
- Federal Scheme Disapproved
- Establishment of Independent States
- Safeguards for Minorities
- The extent of State Sovereignty
Federal Scheme Disapproved
The federal scheme formulated in the Government of India act 1935 is unsuitable for the Indian conditions. The Indian Muslims will never accept it.
Establishment of Independent States
It was clearly stated that a constitution acceptable for the Muslims of India should be based on the following principles:
“Geographically contiguous units be demarcated into regions …….. in which the Muslims are numerically a majority, as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India, should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.
Safeguards of Minorities
In the newly established Muslim and non-Muslim states adequate constitutional safeguards should be provided to minorities, with their consultation, for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political and administrative rights and interests.
The extent of State Sovereignty
The resolution authorized the Muslim League Working Committee to draft a constitutional scheme in the light of the principles stipulated in the resolution. This scheme shall ensure that the states created under this scheme have full control over the defence, foreign affairs, communications, customs and all other necessary subjects.
Q10. Analyze the Lahore Resolution and determine its place and role in the history of our freedom movement.
The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. Maulvi Fazlul Haq presented it and Quaid-e-Azam said in his address:
“By all means, Muslims are one nation and they need a separate homeland where they could live their spiritual, cultural, economical, social and political lives independently”.
Basic points of Pakistan Resolution
The basic points of the Pakistan Resolution were:
- Independent Muslim State
- Partition – the only acceptable solution
- Rights of the Minorities in Pakistan
Independent Muslim State
It was stated in the resolution that the contiguous units in the different areas should be demarcated as such that the Muslims majority areas of the North East and North West be established as an independent Muslim state.
Partition- the only acceptable solution
It was made clear in the resolution that no other scheme other than the partition of the Sub-continent will be accepted.
Rights of the Muslim Minority
It was stated that after partition, the rights of the Muslim minority will be protected and suitable arrangements will be made for this purpose.
Hindu Reaction after the passing of the Pakistan Resolution
Immediately after the passing of the resolution, the Hindu press openly rejected it. The Hindu journalists called it “the division of the mother cow”. They rejected Muslim’s demands and ridiculed the resolution. They called it impractical and termed it as the fancy of some sick mind.
Hindu Political leaders
Hindu political leaders especially Gandhiji and Pandit Jawarhar Lal Nehru criticized the resolution a lot. They turned it down in harsh words.
The Name of the Resolution
Muslim League named this resolution as Lahore Resolution. But the Hindu press and Hindu leaders ironically termed it as the Pakistan Resolution. Ironically enough, this name became more popular than the original one. The Muslim leaders adopted the new term. It was later on called Pakistan Resolution in all quarters.
The Reaction of the Muslims
Some sects of the Muslim were reluctant to accept promote the demand for partition. But on the whole, this resolution was very popular in the Muslim circle.
British press paid no heed to the Pakistan Resolution.
The Hindus were confident that Pakistan would not be created but the determination and struggle of the Muslims retorted their false confidence. Pakistan dawned on the horizon of the globe only seven years after the Pakistan Resolution.
Q11. Give a brief account of the Cripps Mission proposals. How do the major parties of India react to the proposals?
The passing of the Pakistan Resolution was a turning point in the history of Indian Muslims; it brought about a qualitative change in their status as a minority in India. By the middle of 1940, the war had brought disaster for the allies, as France fell in June 1940, the British Government made renewed appeals for cooperation to all parties in India. In the middle of 1941, the war situation had become more serious for the allies, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and America was involved in the war, the initial success of the Japanese armies in South-East Asia brought the war to India’s doorstep.
Cripps in India
The British under the leadership of the die-hard imperialist Churchill were most reluctant to make any firm commitment regarding Indian independence. Sir Stafford Cripps, who had recently joined the government as Lord Privy Seal and become a member of the War Cabinet and leader of the House of Commons, had decided to proceed to India.
Cripps flew into Karachi on March 22, 1942, and touched down at New Delhi’s airport the following day, the “Pakistan Day”, the second anniversary of the Lahore resolution that was celebrated in Delhi by public meeting addresses by Jinnah. During his stay, Cripps met with Maulana Azad, Jinnah, Gandhi and Nehru to discuss the issues regarding India. He met Jinnah on March 25 and explained to Jinnah that he had changed his view about the Muslim League and Pakistan because of the change in the communal feeling in India and the growth of the Pakistan Movement.
Cripps publicly disclosed the contents of the Declaration at a press conference on March 29. The declaration used:
1. The creation of a new Indian Union which shall constitute a Dominion, associated with the United Kingdom and other Dominions by a common allegiance to the Crown, but equal them in every respect.
- The said goal would be achieved in the following manner, immediately after the war, an elected body would be set up to frame a new constitution for India.
- Any province of British India not prepared to accept the new Constitution would have the right to retain its present constitutional position.
- To such non-acceding provinces, his Majesty’s Government would be prepared to give the same full status as to the Indian Union.
Reaction to the Cripps Proposals
The proposals brought by Cripps were not received very enthusiastically by any section of India opinion. Gandhi and other Congress leaders were against it because they believed that Britain had already lost the war that it had nothing to offer for the future of India and therefore, they looked to Japan and other Axis powers who appeared to them to have the key to their future. Hindu chauvinists to whom Pakistan had become a nightmare smelt the germ of the idea of Pakistan, even if it was not the Pakistan of the Muslim League’s conception. Jinnah, in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League, analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that their main objective was the creation of a new Indian Union and Pakistan was treated only “as a remote possibility”.
Rejection of the Cripps Proposals
The formal rejection of the Cripps Proposals took the form of a Congress Working Committee resolution dated April 11, 1942. The Muslim League too rejected of the same date. It expressed gratification that the possibility of Pakistan was “recognized by implication” but stated that “the only solution of India’s constitutional problem is the partition of India into independent zones; and it will, therefore, be unfair to Muslims to compel them to enter such a constitution-making body whose main objective is the creation of a new Indian Union.” The Committee concluded that as “the proposals for the future are unacceptable, it will serve no useful purpose to deal further with the question of the immediate arrangement”
Q12. Write a note on the elections of India held in 1945-46.
With the failure of the Simla Conference, Lord Wavell announced that the Central and Provincial Legislature elections would be held in the winter of 1945, after which a constitution-making body would be set up. He also announced that after the elections, the Viceroy would set an Executive Council that would have the support of the main Indian political parties. Both the Muslim League and the Congress opposed the proposal.
The Quaid-e-Azam’s Refusals to accept ant Settlement but Partition
Quaid-e-Azam declared that Muslims were not ready to accept any settlement less than a separate homeland for them and the All India Congress Committee characterized that the proposal as vague, inadequate and unsatisfactory because it had not addressed the issue of independence. Despite this, the two parties launched huge election campaigns, they knew that the elections would be crucial for the future of India, as the results were to play an important role in determining their standing. The League wanted to sweep the Muslim constituencies to prove that they were the sole representatives of the Muslims of Sub-continent, while Congress wanted to prove that, irrespective of religion, they represent all the Indians.
The Election Campaign
Both the Muslim League and the Congress promulgated opposite slogans during their campaigns. The Muslim League presented a one-point manifesto “if you want Pakistan, vote for the Muslim League”. Quaid-e-Azam himself toured the length and breadth of India and tried to unite the Muslim community under the banner of the Muslim League.
The Congress on the other hand stood for United India. To counter the Muslim League, the Congress press abused the Quaid and termed his demand for Pakistan as the “vivisection of Mother India”, “reactionary primitivism” and “religious barbarism”. Congress tried to brand Muslim League as an ultra-conservative clique of Knights, Khan Bahadurs, toadies and government pensioners. The Congress also tried to get the support of all the provincial and central Muslim parties who had some differences with the League and backed them in the elections.
Elections for Central legislature
Elections for the Central Legislature were held in December 1945. Though the franchise was limited, the turnover was extraordinary.
The Results of the Elections
The Congress was able to sweep the polls for the non-Muslim seats. They managed to win more than 80 percent of the general seats and about 91.3 percent of the total general votes. The Leagues performance, however, was even more impressive: it managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims. The results of the provincial election held in early 1946 were not different. Congress won most of the non-Muslim seats while the Muslim League captured approximately 95 percent of the Muslim seats.
December 2, 1945
The second general elections in India were held in December 1945. The Congress, the All-India Muslim League and several other organizations participated in the elections. The All-India Muslim League captured all the thirty seats reserved for Muslims in the Central Legislative Assembly.
Elections in Provinces
Out of 495 seats reserved for Muslims in the provincial legislatures, Muslim League captured 440 seats. The break-up is as follows:
|Province||Muslim Seats||Muslim League Seats|
In a bulletin issued on January 6, 1946, the Central Election Board of the Congress claimed that the election results had vindicated the party as the biggest, strongest and the most representative organization in the country. On the other hand, the League celebrated January 11, 1946, as the ‘Day of Victory’ and declared that the election results were enough to prove that Muslim League, under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam, was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region.
Q13. What was the Cabinet Mission Plan?
The war with Japan came to an end on August 10, 1945. After that, general elections were held in the United Kingdom. As a result of these elections, the Labor Party headed by Mr. Clement Attlee took office. Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced in the Parliament the British Government’s decision to send a Cabinet Mission to India. It consisted of Lord Pethick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander. Attlee further announced that his Government was aware of the rights of the minorities, yet he could not allow a minority to place a veto on the rights of the majority. The Cabinet Mission arrived in India on 16th May.
The Cabinet Mission met leaders of the political parties. The India National Congress and the Muslim League failed to agree. While Congress wanted a United India and the creation of Pakistan. The Mission put forward its plan to solve the problem and announced its award on May 6, 1946.
Main Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan
The main provisions for the cabinet mission plan were as follows:
- India would be a federation
- The affairs to be dealt with by the federal government.
- Three groups of provinces.
- A province can opt-out of the group
- A constituent assembly
- Establishment of the Interim government
India would be a Federation or a Union
India would be a Federation or a Union consisting of British provinces and the India Princely States.
The Affairs to be dealt with by the Federal Government
The Federal government would deal with defence, foreign affairs and communications. The units of the federation will look after all other subjects.
Three groups of provinces
There would be three groups of the provinces
|Group A||Madras, Bombay, U.P., Bihar, Central Province and Orissa.|
|Group B||Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier Province and the British Balochistan (this Group was to constitute Muslim Majority areas.)|
|Group C||Bengal and Assam|
The province can opt-out of the Group
These groups would draft their constitutions in consultation with different provinces included in each group. A province could opt out of the group by a majority decision of its legislature.
A Constituent Assembly
A constituent assembly consisting of 389 members – 292 from provinces, 4 from the territories governed by Chief Commissioners and 93 from the Indian Princely States – would draft the Constitution of India.
Establishment of the Interim government
Interim Government at the Centre consisting of representatives of all communities would be installed based on parity between the representatives of the Hindus and Muslims.
The Reaction of the Muslim League
The league announced its willingness to participate in the Constitution-making Body. It, however, reiterated that its ultimate objective was Pakistan and that it would employ every means in its power, and consider no sacrifice too great to achieve its goal. The League also conveyed to the Viceroy its willingness to participate in the proposed ‘Interim government’.
The reaction of the Congress
The Congress notified its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission’s plan with a few reservations. It stated that it would join the Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of a free, united and democratic India. But it refused participation in the Interim government for the reason that it could not give up its national character or accept an artificial parity with the Muslim League in the formation of a provisional government.
The Reaction of the Sikhs
The Sikhs found the proposals unacceptable on the ground that the inclusion of the Sikh community in the North-Western Muslim block (Group ‘b’) would leave the Sikhs at the mercy of the Muslims and imperil the Sikh religion and culture. The All India Scheduled Castes imperil the Sikh religion and culture. The All India Scheduled Castes Federation considered the proposals as absolutely illusory and unworthy of serious consideration because seats have not been reserved for the Scheduled castes in the Legislatures. And also, because only one seat was offered to them in the Interim government.
Q14. In what circumstances the 1946 Interim government was established? What fate did it meet?
Wavell wrote identical letters to Nehru and Jinnah on July 22, 1946, asking them whether the Congress and the Muslim League would be prepared to enter an interim government on the basis that six members (including one Scheduled Caste Representative) would be nominated by the Congress and five by the Muslim League. The Viceroy would nominate three representatives of the minorities. Jinnah replied that the proposal was not acceptable to the Muslim League because it destroyed the principle of the party. At Nehru’s invitation, he and Jinnah conferred together on August 15, but could not agree on the question of the Congress joining the interim government.
The Decision of the British Government Regarding Interim Government
The British government desired that while the constitution-making plan proceeds, an interim government, having the support of major political parties, might be formed at the Centre. In consultation with the members of the Cabinet Mission, the Viceroy announced the formation of a 14-member Executive Council.
The Working Committee of the Muslim League had decided in the meantime that Friday, August 16, 1946, would be marked as the ‘Direct Action Day’. There was serious trouble in Calcutta and some rioting in Sylhet on that day. There was serious trouble in Calcutta during August 16 to 19 were 4,000 dead and 10,000 injured. In his letter to Pethick-Lawrence, Wavell had reported that appreciably more Muslims than Hindus had been killed. The ‘Great Calcutta Killing’ marked the start of the bloodiest phase of the ‘war of succession’ between the Hindus and the Muslims and it became increasingly difficult for the British to retain control. Now, they had to cope with the Congress civil disobedience movement as well as furious Muslims that had also come out in the streets in thousands.
The negotiations with Muslim League
The negotiations with the League reached a deadlock and the Viceroy decided to form an interim government with the Congress alone, leaving the door open for the League to come in later. A communiqué was issued on August 24, which announced that the existing members of the Governor General’s Executive Council had resigned and that on their places new persons had been appointed. It was stated that the interim government would be installed on September 2.
The Quaid-e-Azam’s Assertion for Pakistan
The Quaid-e-Azam declared two days later that the Viceroy had struck a severe blow to Indian Muslims and had added insult to injury by nominating three Muslims who did not command the confidence of Muslims of India. He reiterated that the only solution to the Indian problem was the division of India into Pakistan and Hindustan. The formation of an interim government consisting only of the Congress nominees added further feel to the communal fire. The Muslims regarded the formation of the interim government as an unconditional surrender of power to the Hindus and feared that the Governor-General would be unable to prevent the Hindus from using their newly acquired power of suppressing Muslims all over India.
The Muslim Ministers of the Interim government
The League had, therefore, decided to nominate five members for the interim government. On October 15, he gave the Viceroy the following five names:
- Liaquat Ali Khan
- I. Chandigarh
- Abdur Rab Nishtar
- Ghazanfar Ali Khan
- Joginder Nath Mandal
The last name was a Scheduled Caste Hindu and was a tit-for-tat for the Congress insistence upon including a Nationalist Muslim in its quota.
Q15. Give a background account of the 3rd June Plan? Also, give its salient features?
This was a plan for the partition of India prepared by Lord Louis Mount Batten, the last Viceroy of India, in consultation with the British government. It was based on a fundamental principle that the transfer of power should take place according to the wishes of the people.
The Salient Features of the 3rd June Plan
The salient features of the third June plan were:
- It provided for ascertaining the wishes of the people concerning the framing of their constitution by the existing Constituent consisting of the representative of those areas, which decide not to participate in the existing Constituent Assembly.
- The members of the provincial legislatures of Bengal and Punjab were to decide on the issue of partition and as soon as the decision involving partition had been taken, separate Boundary Commissions would be set up which would demarcate the boundaries of the two parts of the provinces.
- In North-West Frontier Province referendum was to be held to ascertain the wishes of the people and in Sindh, the Indian members of the Legislative Assembly were to take their own decision.
The Quaid-e-Azam’s Comments on the 3rd June Plan
In his broadcast statement, the Quaid-e-Azam said that the Plan did not meet, in some respects, our point of view. He, however, expressed his satisfaction on some of the matters dealt with in the Plan. But it is for us now to consider whether the Plan should be accepted by us as a compromise or a settlement.
League accepts 3rd June Plan
In a resolution adopted by the Council of the All-India Muslim League it was stated that although the Council could not agree to the partition of Bengal and Punjab, it accepts the fundamental principles of the Plan as a compromise.