Table of Contents
Subjective Questions with Answers
Q1. Define Culture; elaborate its importance in human life.
Derivation of Culture
The word culture is derived from the Latin root “colere” (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honour)
The general definition of Culture
In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria or valuing human activity. Anthropologists use the term to refer to the universal human capacity to classify experiences and to encode and communicate them symbolically. They regard this capacity as a defining feature of the genus Homo. Since culture is not innate but learned, people living in different places have different cultures.
Dr. Jameel Jalibi on Culture
“Culture, therefore, connotes the entire range of a society’s make-up such as religion, faith, morals, customs, laws, learning, arts, crafts, hobbies and leisure which a man acquires as a member of society, and whose use and adoption enables the different and sometimes dissimilar individuals and groups to develop common on interests and acquire common appearance and traits.
Culture makes a man capable of distinguishing between uncivilized behaviours and urbanity; thus, raising the arts and crafts to a higher level”.
Culture and Society
Culture has a fundamentally important role to play in strengthening civil society. It is understood that where individuals make a strong commitment to civil society, they have made a strong investment in the future stability of that society. Moreover, evidence has sown that in those parts of the world where civil society is weak, economic and political growth is almost impossible.
Culture and Nationality
Modern sociologists believe that culture plays a decisive role in the formation of nations and nationalities. Relationship between culture and nationality can be easily understood by the study of the Pakistan Movement. Pakistan was not meant to be a national state, pure and simple. The Muslims of India wanted to establish a state living under which they would safeguard and promote their culture and civilization. In other words, culture al aspirations of the Indian Muslims gave birth to Muslim Nationalism in India, which later came to be known as Pakistani Nationalism and the culture as Pakistani Culture.
Q2. Give a summary of Toynbee’s finding regarding the culture of our area.
Arnold Toynbee is the most eminent of the western historians and his book called “A study of history”, is the most authentic treatise on the history of civilization and the art of historiography. This book is 10 volumes.
Toynbee’s Findings of area
At page 107 and 108 of the first volume of his world-famous book “A Study of History,” Toynbee discusses the history of Indus civilization.
- Mohenjo-Daro Culture delineates Pakistan Culture
- Life spam of community at Mohenjo-Daro
- Places and communities in this area
- Sir Johan Marshall did Pioneer work in Indus Civilization
- Indus Civilization extends to Balochistan
- Pakistan culture connected with the remote Past.
Mohenjo-Daro delicate Pakistani culture
The roots of Pakistani culture lie deep in Mohenjo-Daro civilization. The culture of this area of ours dates back to nearly 1700 B.C. when Mohenjo-Daro was the heart of Indus civilization.
Life Span of the community at Mohenjo-Daro
The life span of the community at Mohenjo-Daro is to be dated between 3250 and 2750 BC (in the later period through investigations made with the help of newly devised scientific instruments, it was revealed that this culture was less old than it was estimated by Arnold Toynbee, these findings dated it at 2600 BC. The ancient city of Kot Diji in Sindh is older than Mohenjo-Daro.
Races and Communities in this Area
Some Turks like some Aryas, Crossed the Hind Kush and descended upon South Asia, while other Turks like other Aryas made their way westward as far as Syria. (This incidence manifests the ethnic affinity between the Pakistani people and the races of the Middle East).
Sir John Marshall did Pioneer Work on Indus Civilization
Sir John Marshall is the person who did pioneer work on the Indus Valley Civilization. According to him, there is complete uniformity of culture between Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, through the cities are located at a distance of nearly 650 km from each other
Indus Civilizations Extends to Balochistan
The domain of this culture extends into Balochistan, but Balochistan was not an important seat of it.
Indus Culture Relates to “Ganges Basin”
“There is no evidence, yet forthcoming for the presence of the Indus Culture in the Ganges Basin.”
We can summarize Toynbee’s findings in the three points:
- The area that now forms Pakistan had a distinct cultural identity, even in the remotes past.
- History shows that the territory of Pakistan was culturally linked with the Middle East and not with the Ganges Valley. (now a part of India)
- The people of Pakistan have a closer ethnic affinity with the racial groups settled in the Middle East.
Q3. Write an essay on ‘Fine Arts in Pakistan’?
Aesthetics from all over the world and the critics of arts in all departments of fine arts are attracted to experience and discover the boundless depth and beauty of Pakistani culture. A brief review of Pakistani culture has been attempted in the following lines:
Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have revealed that the people of his land had achieved a level of advancement in the fields of architect and urban planning. They built houses, swimming pools, public baths and market places. These buildings were airy and bright and were provided with the excellent drainage system.
People of Harappa Mohenjo-Daro and Gandhara had attained excellence in the art of melting metals and making of ornaments and seals and carving out sculptures. During the Muslim period, the craftsmen attained excellence in the art of making glazed titles printed with floral and geometrical designs.
Pakistan had a very rich tradition in different styles of painting. Starting from the anonymous painters of the murals at Butgaram (Swat) the tradition enriched itself through the ages; especially notable are miniature paintings of the Mughal period and later the masterpieces of Abdur Rahman Chughtai and Ustad Allah Buksh in the twentieth century AD.
Wood carving and engraving, making glazed and painted earthenware, engraving and inlay work on brass, copper and alloy utensils and the art of making delicate ornaments, are the specialities Pakistanis excel in and are appreciated throughout the civilized world.
Our calligraphists have demonstrated great promise by keeping abreast with the spirit of the modern age and evolving newer modes of expression. Prominent among these are Abdul Majeed Parveen Raqam, Hafiz Yousaf Sadidi, Sayyid Anwar Hussain Nafees Raqam, Khurshid Alam Gohar Raqam, Sadiqain and Aslam Kamal.
Dress Designing/ Needlework
The tradition of making festive, as well as beautiful informal male and female dresses, has been kept alive by the Pakistani craftsmen. Woollen patti (orpattu) of Gilgit and Swat, shawls and gown of Kashmir, Phulkari of the Punjab and the NWFP and Multan, Ajrak and Bandhnu of Sindh are the products liked by the people not only in Pakistan but also outside.
Our area has a centuries-old tradition of making hand-knotted carpets. Lahore is the oldest centre of carpet making. Carpets made here are exported and appreciated throughout the world. Special varieties of carpets are done in Kashmir, The NWFP, Balochistan are Sindh. These include Namdas and Ghalichas.
Apart from Eid and religious festivals, melas are celebrated on the birth anniversaries of the Sufi saints, and special seasonal and harvesting occasions. Festivals are more popular in rural areas; they reflect our rural culture and provide recreation to the people who otherwise have not much of it.
Wrestling, Kabbaddi, malakhra, volleyball and football are the most favourite sports in our villages. Hockey is our national sport. Pakistan has produced some of the world’s finest sportsmen in the field of Hockey, Cricket and Squash.
Q4. What are the cultural characteristics common among different parts of Pakistan?
“Culture” can be defined in many different ways. Culture may be defined as behaviour peculiar to human beings, together with material objects used. Culture consists of language, ideas, values, attributes, beliefs, customs, codes, institutions, tools works and arts, religion, law, morality, ceremonies and festivals. Muller’s definition of Culture
According to Muller-Layer, Culture can be defined as “Culture is an aggregate means of achievement and progress”.
Salient Features of Pakistan Culture
Following are the salient features of Pakistani culture:
- Religious Unity
- Heterogeneous Nature
- Marriage Patterns
- Family life
- Simple Life
- Simple Dress
- Spirituality Oriented Society
- Culture Heritage
Pakistan is a Muslim country and Islam is the official religion. Islam is the religion which is professed and practised by the people of Pakistan.
Pakistani culture can be called as “Mixed Culture”. Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith, there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture. The shadows of this influence are quite visible on the marriage ceremonies and festivals like “Basant”. Pakistani society is largely multilingual and multicultural. Religious practices of various faiths are an integral part of everyday life in society.
The marriage ceremonies in Pakistan are very simple. Islam discourages the practice of Dowry. Bride and groom start the new journey of their life with the holy ceremony of Nikah. Display of mehndi, fireworks, extravagant lights, singing and dancing are un-Islamic practices.
English the official language in Pakistan, but the national language is Urdu, which is widely spoken and understood throughout the country. Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi, Balochi and Kashmiri are the regional languages.
Pakistani society is a “Male Oriented Society” where they are given full protection and great respect. A male member, usually the oldest male member of the group, heads the family. He guides the other members. The traditional family values are highly respected and considered sacred, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system, owing to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system.
Social Life is simple. Social customs are traditions reflect Islamic touch: people are very much conscious about their social traditions and feel pride in following them.
Dress in a Muslim society like Pakistan is designed and intended to cover the human body, as nudity is prohibited in Islam. So, people of Pakistan prefer to wear simple dresses according to their climate. Most rural homes in Pakistan are made of mud or mud-brick, though concrete and fired brick buildings have become more prevalent. Women usually wear a long dupatta or scarf draped around the head and shoulders. Islam value of “Satr-Poshi” is the hallmark of Pakistani dresses.
Spirituality- Oriented Society
Ulema, Mushaikh and Sufi poets occupy highly honoured placed in Pakistani culture.
Pakistan has a rich and unique cultural heritage and has actively preserved its established traditions throughout history. Many cultural practices and monuments have been inherited from the rule of Mughal emperors.
Q5. Examine and evaluate the culture of Pakistan concerning Mohenjo-Daro, Taxila and Gandhara
Mohenjo-Daro, literally “mound of the dead”, like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is situated some 80km southwest of modern Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. The ruins of Mohenjo-Daro cover an area of more than five km and lie scattered on the right banks of the river Indus. It is located at about 320 km north of Karachi. It was probably built between four and five thousand years ago and was abandoned around 1700 BC, probably due to change of course of the river, which supported the civilization. It was rediscovered in the 1920s by archaeologists.
Mohenjo-Daro is a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, with structures constructed of bricks of baked mud, sun-dried bricks and burned wood. At its height, the city probably had around 35,000-40,000 residents. It had an advanced drainage system, a variety of buildings up to two stories high, and an elaborate bath area. It even had a building with an underground furnace, possibly for heated bathing.
The city was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.
Taxila is an archaeological site, located in the Punjab province of Pakistan, west of the Islamic Capital Territory and Rawalpindi, on the border of the Punjab and NWFP and just of the Grand Trunk Road.
Taxila (then called taksh-shila) was an ancient Buddhist seat of learning, connected across the Khunjerab pass to the Silk Road, attracting students from all over the world. It flourished during the first-fifth centuries AD. Located at the junction of three major trade routes, it was of considerable economic and strategic importance.
According to the mythical accounts of Jain Mat, this city is million years old. In the days of Ashoka, Taxila emerged as the pyramids of learning, most in its time and unique throughout the world. The University of Taxila quenched the thirst of the students of Buddhism, arithmetic, surgery and philosophy. The UNESCO has listed Taxila as one of the World Heritage Site.
Gandhara is the name of an ancient country in eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan. Gandhara was located mainly on the southern side of Kabul River. In the east, it extended beyond Indus River and included within its boundaries parts of the valley of Kashmir. It is sometimes identified as the antecedent of present-day Kandahar in Afghanistan.
Q6. Why gender equality is essential for the creation of a cultured society?
By culture, we mean intellectual and creative products, including literature, music, drama and painting. Another use of “culture” is to describe the beliefs and practices of another society, particularly where these are seen as closely linked with tradition origin. But culture is more than that. Culture is a part of the fabric of every society, including our own. It shapes “the way things are done” and our understanding of why this should be so.
Culture and Society
“Culture is the whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or a social group. It includes not only arts and letters but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.
Gender and Culture
Gender identifies and gender relations are critical aspects of culture because they shape the way daily life is lived in the family, but also the wider community and the workplace. Gender (like race or ethnicity) functions as an organizing principle for society because of the cultural meanings given to being male or female.
Men are no Piece of Gold
“There is a Cambodian saying that men are no piece of gold, and women are no piece of cloth.” These two genders are equally important to the venue of life.
Gender disparity in Pakistan
The Western world has exploited women in the name of emancipation and deprived her of her natural purity. According to a survey, 98 percent of women expressed an earnest desire to return to family life but found them helpless because neither the husband nor the father was ready to welcome them back. If we cast a glance at our society, we find our women suffering from several problems.
Different forms of gender Inequality in Pakistan:
The different forms of gender equality in Pakistan are:
- Lesser creature
- Forced Labor
- Honour Killing
- Violence against Women
- Domestic Violence
- Trafficking of Women
- Gender Disparity in the matters of health
- Gender disparity in the matters of Education
The woman is considered to be a lesser creature than man. Her birth is a burden for the family.
Women are made to work as peasants and as field labour in our rural areas.
Women in the fudal system
In the fudal system, women are treated like a slave.
In Pakistan every year, many women are killed in the name of honour. In Sindh, this honour killing has a traditional form, namely Karo kari. Our social system is generally inclined to favour men, a woman is convicted notwithstanding the fallacy of charge levied against her, and woman is even not given a chance to plead innocent in the court of law.
Violence against Women
Violence against women is a fundamental violation of the human right to life, physical safety, self-respect and dignity. It is the manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women.
Domestic violence is fairly widespread across all classes. It ranges from slapping, hitting and kicking to murder. Since the society, police and law enforcing agencies view domestic violence as a private matter, it goes unnoticed until it takes extreme forms of murder or attempted murder.
Trafficking of Women
Trafficking of women is also on the rise. Foreign women from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar are brought to Pakistan and sold.
Gender disparity in the matters of health
Violence against women is also a public health and development issue. As stated in ADBs gender and development policy paper, the relationship between female-focused violence and morality, health care utilization, child survival. AIDS prevention and cost to the judiciary and law enforcement agencies are receiving increasing attention.
Gender disparity in the matters of education
In Pakistan, the female literacy rate is much lower than that of males.
Pakistan is a Muslim state. In Muslim, state woman has their rights. She has the same responsibilities towards herself, towards Allah the Almighty and other human beings as the male, and will be punished or rewarded in the Hereafter without discrimination towards her female gender.
Q7. Give an account of the rights Islam guaranteed for women.
In the days before Islam, women were treated like slaves or property. Their consent concerning anything related to their well-being was considered unimportant, to such a degree that was even treated as a party to a marriage contract.
Women and the Greeks
Greeks claimed themselves to be the most cultures and civilized people in the world, yet the status of women in the Greek city-states was no better than slaves. They were not entitled even to the right to vote.
Women and the Hindu religion
Old Hindi scriptures are full of derogatory remarks about women. The slogan of women emancipation, though very attractive resulted in more exploitation and worsening of a lot of women.
Women in the Western World
As late as 1918 the British women were given the right to vote. American women had to wait another ten years before they were enfranchised.
On the other hand, Islam gave women rights equal to men, Islam gave women the following rights:
- Right to be treated fairly
- Right to equality
- Right to Social life
- Right to employment
- Right to the attainment of Knowledge
- Right to property
- Right to the necessities of life
- Right to be consulted with
Right to be treated fairly
The rights of Muslim women were given to us by Allah the Almighty, who is Al-Compassionate, All-Merciful, All-Just, All-Unbiased. All-Knowing and Most wise. The rights, which were granted to women more than 1400 years ago, and were taught by the perfect example of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), was given by the one who created us and who alone knows what rights are best for our female natures. Allah the Almighty says in the Quran:
The most basic right of a woman in Islam is the knowledge and recognition that she never has to ask or demand or fight for her rights which are guaranteed to her by Allah the Almighty himself.
Right to equality
Islam considers a woman to be equal to a man as a human being and his partner in this life. Women have been created with a soul of the same nature as men. Allah the Almighty says in the Quran:
“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who create you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allah through whom you demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely Allah is even and All-Watcher over you”.
Muslim women are not forbidden from going out in the community, working or visiting relatives and female friends, if there is no objection from the guardian/husband and they are covered and behaved and speak according to Islamic guidelines and, if necessary, escorted by their Mahram (a close male relative). However, a woman’s home should be the main base that she works from.
Right to education
In the words of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
“To seek knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim.”
Muslim here meaning male and female Muslim, as women are the twin halves of men. The Prophet (PBUH) also said:
“Whoever follows a way to seek knowledge, Allah will make easy for him a way to paradise”.
A woman in Islam has the right to knowledge and education. Allah the Almighty encourages women to read and keep up the learning process. He also bestows his mercy upon all who seek knowledge and gives them high status.
Right to the attainment of Knowledge
Islam makes it obligatory for both men and women to seek knowledge. So the Muslim women have the full right of attainment of knowledge.
Right to property
Women can earn and own property if they like. It would be their personal property and no father or husband is allowed to deprive them of the right of having the property.
Right to the necessities of life
A woman doesn’t need to earn her livelihood. She can’t be forced to earn her livelihood. It is the moral duty of the husband to provide his wife with necessities of life.
Women have a complete right over all the necessities of life which man can relish on. The Holy Quran says:
Allah has given the one more strength than the other because the men support them from their means
Right to be consulted with
Islam made women respectable enough that men can consult with them. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) took opinion from Hazrat Umme Salma (RA) when the treaty of Hudabia was to be signed. Similarly, Hazarat Umar (RA) consulted with his daughter Hazrat Hafsa (RA) In very important matters of the state. Ummul Momineen Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was held in high esteem by the Sahabas of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the matters of Islamic juristic onion.
Q8. What strategy has been adopted for women fortification in national affairs under the devolution plan?
The President of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf envisioned a new political system in which power was to be developed on the common man at the grassroots level and women were to be made an equal partner in sharing power with men. He launched a “Devolution of Power and Responsibility plan.”
The woman’s participation in the National affairs according to the devolution plan provided that
- Every union council should be comprised of 21 members. Out of these 21. 6 seats will be reserved for women.
- Out of these 6 seats, 2 would be reserved for Kisan females’ women working as peasant or agriculture labourers.
- Women will be given 33 percent representation in District Government.
- 60 seats would be reserved for females in the National Assembly.
- The allocation of seats under provincial Quota in the legislative assemblies would be as follows
|Punjab Assembly||Sindh Assembly||NWFP Assembly||Balochistan Assembly|
The comparison of the allocation of female seats between the 1973 constitution and the Devolution Plan.
The brief overview shows that a new resolution in the life of Pakistani women has set in, the prospects show that these changes will go long way in improving a lot of Pakistan women concerning safeguarding their social and political rights on one side and ensuring their constructive participation in the task of nation-building on the other.
Q9. Write an essay on “Be Pakistani, Buy Pakistani”
History bears a testimony to the fact that only those nations survived which relied on their resources for development. Only those made economic progress, which had once decided to adopt the habit of using their indigenous products and had remained religiously committed to this vow.
The Dilemma of Pakistanis
Pakistanis have never adopted the habit of patronizing their national products and this is perhaps one of the paramount causes of our retarded economic growth.
We use Imported Goods
We, the Pakistanis are maniac after using imported goods. We consider that using imported goods is a status symbol. Due to this infatuation of the imported goods, a big amount of our precious foreign exchange diminishes this phenomenon that the masses should “Be Pakistani, Buy Pakistani” Realization of the dream of Be Pakistani buy Pakistani”
To realize the dream of “Be Pakistani, Buy Pakistani”
- The leaders should set a role model for the masses.
- The standard of the local products should be raised so that they can be a substitute for high-quality imported goods.
- Incentives should be provided to the local manufacturers.
- Media should create awareness in the people to use homemade articles and to abstain from imported goods.
Q10. Highlight the social characteristics of Pakistan concerning family life and social customs.
Social characteristics of Pakistani Culture
The characteristics of Pakistani culture as follows:
- Religious Units
- Marriage Ceremonies
- National Language
- Male oriented society
- Social life
- Simple dress
- Purely Islamic society
- Family system
Pakistan is a Muslim country and Islam is the official religion. Islam is the religion, which is professed and practised by the people of Pakistan. Pakistani culture can be called as “Mixed Culture”. Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith, there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture.
The marriage ceremonies In Pakistan are very simple. Islam discourages the practice of Dowry. Bride and groom start the new journey of their life with the holy ceremony of Nikkah. Display of mehndi, fireworks, extravagant lights, singing and dancing are un-Islamic practices.
English is the official language in Pakistan, but the national language is Urdu, which is widely spoken and understood throughout the country. Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi, Balochi and Kashmiri are the regional languages.
Male Oriented Society
Pakistani society is a “Male Oriented Society”, where they are given full protection and great respect. He guides the other members. Old people are given positions of prestige, honour and respect in Pakistani culture.
Social life is simple. Social customs and traditions reflect Islamic touch: people are very much conscious about their social traditions and feel pride in following them.
Dress is Islamic
Dress in a Muslim society like Pakistan is designed and intended to cover the human body, as nudity is prohibited in Islam. So, people of Pakistan prefer to wear simple dresses according to their climate.
A purely Islamic Society
People of Pakistan are extremely humble simple and Islamic people. Image of Islam portrayed by the terrorists as Islam is to tarnish the name of the Last Religion. In Pakistan, you can see the real image of simple and pure people and understand what the basis of Islam is. Pakistani society runs around the reigns of Islam.
People in Pakistan are very much linked together by family bonds or by the place where they live or just friendship, especially in Lahore. They live in large families and are very proud of their family background like the British. Such a bond only exists between our people who keep others interests above their interests.
The western concept of clubs is so well implemented in the local cultures of the Pakistani People that they are asked to come to community centre Five times a day and that is what is called the Mosque. Where we go to say our prayer five times a day and meet those people who live in the same community and socialize.