Table of Contents
Q1. Four possible options are given for each statement. Mark (✓) on the correct option.
- The diplomatic relations established between Pakistan and Afghanistan:
- In 1947
- In 1948 ✓
- In 1949
- In 1950
- Which country sent its forces into Afghanistan in 1979?
- Russia ✓
- The biggest organ of the United Nations is:
- General Assembly ✓
- International Court of Justice
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- The people’s Republic of China was formed in:
- 1949 ✓
- The number of members of the United Nations Economic and Social Council is:
- 54 ✓
- The first meeting of the Organization of the Islamic Conference was held in 1996
- Rabat ✓
- The organization was established on 24th October 1945
- Organization of Economic Cooperation
- Organization of the Islamic Conference
- United Nations ✓
- Regional Cooperation Development
- The Simla Pact was held between Pakistan and India in:
- 1971 ✓
- The relations between Pakistan and the European Union were established in:
- 1976 ✓
- In which country was the Second Islamic Heads Conference held in 1974?
- Pakistan ✓
- Saudi Arabia
Q4. Write short answers.
What is meant by “Durand Line”?
Durand Line is a borderline between Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was made in the year 1893. Afghanistan accepted the Durand Line as its international border.
What are the responsibilities of the United Nations General Assembly?
Its responsibilities include electing the non-permanent members of the security council, giving membership to a new state and terminating the membership of some state, approving the budget of the Union Nations and taking measures to established world peace etc.
What are the responsibilities of the Economic and Social Council?
Its responsibilities include raising the standard for a living man, trying for economic and social development, collaboration in the educational, scientific and cultural fields, taking measures to eradicate unemployment poverty and diseases etc.
When was the border settlement made between Pakistan and Iran?
The border settlement was made between Pakistan and Iran in 1957.
Between which two countries was the Indus water treaty signed?
Indus water treaty was signed between Pakistan and India in 1960. It resolved the water dispute between the two countries.
When did the relations between Pakistan and the people’s Republic of China begin?
Pakistan-China friendly relations started and in 1954-44, both countries were tied with each other. Their friendship was based on the sincere emotions of the people.
Write the names of ten member countries of the OIC.
- Saudi Arabia
When was the Kashmir issue presented in the UNO?
Kashmir issue was presented in the UNO in the year 1948.
When and where did the World Trade Centre tragedy take place?
The tragedy of the World Trade Centre took place in New York on 11th September 2001.
Write the introduction of Bhutan in three lines.
Bhutan is a mountainous country. Its capital is Thimphu. The people of Bhutan belong to the Mongol Tribe. The religion of the majority of people is Buddhism.
Q1. What are the basic principles of the foreign policy of Pakistan?
Basic Principles of Foreign Policy of Pakistan
A country frames its foreign policy in the light of its domestic policies. The foreign policy of a country does not remain static but it changes according to time and circumstances Pakistan’s principles of foreign policy are its ideology and national integration.
Pakistan came into being on 14th of August 1947 and it inherited the legacy of foreign policy from British India. However, it made some adjustments following its ideology and objectives of Pakistan movement. Its foreign policy was determined by three factors (i) Security (ii) Development (iii) Ideology. Its security has remained the core stones of its foreign policy because of its geographical location and historical background. Its relationship with superpowers and regional powers have been fluctuating according to political weather, injecting a permanent feeling of uncertainty in their friendship. Thus, Pakistan’s foreign policy of changed to exigencies of time and requirement of international situation; However, Pakistan evolved some basic principles of foreign policy which are as under.
- National Security:
National Security occupies first place in the foreign policy of Pakistan since its independence Pakistan’s national security is being threatened by India because British left the Kashmir issue is there Pakistan needs to maintain its national security or independence. It is why the main principle of its foreign policy is national security.
- Economic Interest:
Pakistan as a developing country is also needed to establish and maintain cordial relations with those states with whom it can maximize its trade relations or from whom it can obtain maximum economic aid.
- Islamic Solidarity:
Pakistan would pursue its ideological objective and would like to achieve the objectives of Islamic Solidarity by promoting its relations with the Islamic world and by preserving its Islamic Ideology.
- Peaceful Co-existence:
Pakistan would believe in peaceful co-existence and would respect the other countries territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in other’s internal affairs.
Pakistan had followed the policy of neutrality and had not aligned itself with any block. When the non-aligned movement was formed it joined it and remained an active member of it.
Pakistan has tried to settle its differences with neighbouring countries, including India through bilateral negotiations.
- United Nations:
Pakistan has faith in the United Nations and has extended full support to the United Nations actions by contributing military as well as personnel for implementing its decisions.
Q2. Explain the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy.
Foreign Policy Objectives
In light of the guiding principles laid down by the founding fathers and the constitution as also aspirations of the people of Pakistan, the objectives of foreign policy can be summarized as under:
- Promotion Pakistan as a dynamic, progressive, moderate and democratic Islamic country.
- Developing friendly relations with all countries of the world, especially major powers and immediate neighbours.
- Safeguarding national security and geostrategic interests, including Kashmir.
- Consolidating our commercial and economic cooperation with the international community.
- Safeguarding the interests of Pakistani Diaspora abroad
- Ensuring optimal utilization of national resources for regional and international cooperation.
Q3. Analyze the relations between India and Pakistan.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been strained by several historical and political issues, and are defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, even though the two South Asian nations share historic, cultural, geographic and economic links, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion.
After the dissolution of the British Raj in 1947, two new sovereign nations were formed- the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of former British India displaced up to 12.5 million people, with estimates of the loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million. India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority while Pakistan was established as an Islamic republic with an overwhelming Muslim majority population.
Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial disputes would overshadow their relationship. Since their independence, the two countries have fought three major wars, one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir dispute is the main centre-point of all these conflicts except the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan.
There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship-notably, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore summit. Since the early 1980s relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict, the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989. The 2001 Indian Parliament attack almost brought the two nations on the brink of a nuclear war. The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings, which killed 68 civilians, was also a crucial point in relations. Additionally, the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants resulted in a severe blow to the ongoing India-Pakistan peace talks.
Q4. China is Pakistan’s neighbouring country which has always supported Pakistan in difficult times elaborate.
A country’s existence can’t stay for much longer if the country doesn’t have good relations with some other countries. Relations are mostly built with those countries that are strong and powerful in every aspect such as U.S.A and China. Fortunately, Pakistan has good relations with both of the superpowers of the world U.S.A and China, especially with China. Pakistan and China are close to each other since 1951. Pakistan has always stood as an ally with China and Pakistan was also the first country who supported China in gaining a recognized name in the world and today, we can see the results of Pakistan’s support. Pakistan helped China in becoming what it has become now. Pak-China relations became stronger at the time of international isolation in the 1960s
China supported Pakistan in every way possible in return of all the favours Pakistan gave to China. China helped Pakistan by giving support of its military, its economic assistance, its technical assistance and arranged nuclear equipment for Pakistan and there many other uncountable ways in which China helped Pakistan just to return the favour and also to maintain Pak-China relationship. According to the analysis of experts, it is believed that as the relationship will get better between U.S.A and India then Pak-China relation will grow stronger as China is always there to provide security to its greatest ally Pakistan.
Pakistan has strong trust in China in every aspect and same is the case with China. Pakistan stood up with China and started supporting it mainly after the defeat of China in 1949. To improve the diplomatic relations with China Trans-Karakorum tract was ceded by Pakistan which was going to China. In this way, not only Pak-China diplomatic relation got improved but also China’s border disputes came to an end with India.
When it comes to supporting Pakistan through military then China is always there for Pakistan as China has extremely strong ties of defense with Pakistan and China is very satisfied with it. These defense ties give assurance to Pakistan that China is there to provide a counter to any bad influence from USA and India. There is several defense projects that are ongoing between Pakistan and China in these recent years, there are also been some agreements regarding this due to which Pak-China relations have got strengthened in all these years. To the Army of Pakistan, most of the military equipment are issued by China and this has been happening since 1962. China has also helped Pakistan is establishing ammunition factories with which it also provided technical assistance to Pakistan to modernize the existing facilities Pakistan has.
The country that has invested the most in Gwadar Pakistan seaport in China. China is trying its best so Pakistan’s current situations can get better. It even provided its support to protect Pakistan from terrorism so the name of the country Pakistan can get cleared in the eyes of the people of the world. Citizens of both countries strongly hope that Pak-China relation gets stronger and stays longer.
Q5. Explain the relations between Pakistan and Iran.
We can know the Pak-Iran relations better if we go back to Indo-Iranian ancestry, but it is better to count the relationship after the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. The relation between the two countries started when Iran became the first country in the whole world to know Pakistan.
Iran is considered as the most important neighbour of Pakistan because of its great help. And it is said that in the future these two countries will depend on one each other for economic development. The relations between Iran and Pakistan are old and are known all over the world. Some of the cultural things of Iran are adopted by Pakistan.
In Pak-Iran relations, it must be said that the element that binds these two countries together in Islam. If we took at the time before the independence of Pakistan, Pakistani people were closer to Iranians than Indian living in the sub-continent. Pak-Iran relationships were that stronger in the late 19th century that Persian was included in the languages spoken all over Pakistan. Even today many of the words of Urdu are taken from the Persian language and Persian is taught now in many educational institutes of Pakistan.
Due to some conflicts with Arab counties, Iran became unsecured but after the emergence of a Non-Arab Muslim country, its security became strong. Iran supported Pakistan in every problem after it emerges as a country on the map of the world. The first prime minister of Pakistan visited Iran first in 1949 and the head of Ira did the same in the year 1950. In the honour of the head of Iran Pakistani national anthem was also played in the year 1950. After this, the relationship between Iran and Pakistan became stronger than ever before. In this way, a sense of brotherhood was created according to the Islamic rules and regulations that all the Muslims are brothers to each other.
After the stability of Pakistan, Iran and Turkey along with Pakistan created an organization for social development of the countries that were the part of the organization. It was named as Regional cooperation for development (RCD). It was established in 1964. Due to some issues, its name was later changed and the organization was called ECO. This organization bounded all the Muslim countries together. Pakistan was the first country which introduced the Revolutionary government in Iran.
Pakistan played a great role in the Pak-Iran relationship. When the war between Iran and Iraq was set, Pakistan tried to settle disputes between the two Muslim countries. The relationship between Pakistan and Iran is really powerful and these two countries share each sorrow and happiness. These two countries considered Islamic values and acted as brothers to each other.
Q6. Analyze the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
On accords, the everlasting relation between Pakistan and Afghanistan started in August 1947 however the bondage of Pak-Afghan between its people goes beyond Indo-Pak partition due to common religious, cultural, traditional, linguistic and ethnic ties shared on both sides.
The common border is 2240 km long and formally known as Durand Line. The fact is that Pakistan’s western border which encompassed KPK FATA and some Northern Balochistan is inhibited by people, clans and tribes of the same origin, race, religion, norms, culture and language as those who are residing on the other side of the border e.g. Afghanistan. Majority of individuals from these Pashtun tribes have marital relationships with families across Pak-Afghan Border on both sides.
The existence predominant Pashtun tribes living in this strip can be dated back to thousands of years. It is the same ethnic clan through which many rulers and dynasties ruled in sub-continent. Ahmad Shah Abdai who ruled and liberated people of Punjab from Marhattas in the famous battle of Panipat (1761) is a well known historical figure in this regard. Many prominent individuals from Pashtun Tribes served in important military and political posts of both countries e.g. Ayub Khan, Ghulam Ishaaq Khan, Asfandyaar Wali Khan etc from Pakistan and renowned Zahir Shah family and Karzais from Afghanistan. resent Karzai Government has the majority of Pashtuns serving as minister e.g Abdul Rahim Wardak, Umer Zakhilwal, Anwar ul Haq Ahady etc. So, the people of this clan (which from the majority in Afghanistan and Tribal Belts of Pakistan) are playing a significant role of the development of respective nations. Nothing seems unusual for them while residing in any place of these countries. Majority of them consider another country as their second home apart from the one in which they are living and serving nation. The terrain and lifestyle of people living along the remote areas of Pak-Afghan border are the same.
During Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in the 1980s, many leaders from Afghanistan ran their campaigns to liberate Afghanistan from foreign occupations inside Pashtun tribal belts of Pakistan. President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan was the one amongst them. Pakistan raised funds and military-trained Afghans in these areas to fight against oppression which they were facing at that time. That era market the best of relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan as Afghan Muhajir were not only embraced but also accommodated by their Pakistani brother in KPK and adjacent areas. Analysts from the west still account it as the best example of “Muslim Brotherhood” the world had ever witnessed. The fruit ripped and Afghans with the support of their Pakistani Muslim brothers liberated their homeland when the aggressors withdrew in 1989.
As Afghanistan is landlocked so most of its trade is carried through Pakistan. Pakistani Governments always supported this phenomenon but gave it more shape after the end of Soviet occupations to leverage Afghanistan’s economy which was shattered due to war. Still, the Pakistani Government has not given up. The most recent and noteworthy occasion in this spectrum is the Afghan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement held in October 2010. It was signed by Commerce Ministers of both sides. A Memorandum of Understanding was also established to give access to afghan containers to Wagah and renowned port cities of Karachi and Gwadar through Pakistani Transport Infrastructure. Both countries also agreed on the construction of railway tracks in Afghanistan and link them to the Pakistani ones. This will help Afghanistan to accelerate its trade activities and raise its economy. A joint chamber of commerce between the two countries is also established in November 2010 to add more to the noble cause.
The relationship between Pakistan and Afghanistan is of neighbourhood and ethnicity for others. However, for the people of both these countries, it is not limited to blood but also of spirit. This is none other than the spirit of Humanity and the Muslim Brotherhood. As long as the world will exist so does this spirit.
Q7. Narrate Pakistan’s role in the OIC.
Pakistan role in OIC
Pakistan continues to enjoy a privileged status in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. In terms of population; it is the OICs second largest members. Being the only Muslim country with nuclear weapons having the seventh-largest standing military force, through research at NESCOM and DESTO and a large labour workforce working in various Muslim countries, play a role in its prominence.
It was under the pretext of the 2nd summit of OCI held in Lahore between 22-24 February 1974, that Pakistan recognized the former or ex-Eastern Pakistan as the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Pakistan had initially not invited Bangladesh to attend the summit. However, as members of the OIC group gathered in Lahore, several heads of the state from the Arab world put pressure on Pakistan’s then Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, to invite Sheikh Mujeebur Rehman to attend. A seven-member delegation from OIC, in fact, visited Dacca to invite Mujeeb to participate in the summit. As a result of the 2nd OIC summit, Pakistan formally recognized Bangladesh on 22 February 1974 and Mujeeb was flown by a special aircraft from Dacca to Lahore to attend the summit. Bhutto subsequently visited Decca in July 1974, established relations on 18 January 1976.
In line with OIC strong stance against the occupation of Palestine by Israel, Pakistan has continuously adopted a stance against Israel, while maintaining moral solidarity with Palestine.
Army Service Corps School has trained up to 30 officers from Muslim countries like Bangladesh, Bosnia, Maldives, Palestine, Turkey. Pakistan Army Military College of Signals has trained more than 500 officers from places such as Burma, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Gambia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Sudan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Oman, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE and Zambia, most of these countries are members of OIC.
More than 1900 officers from Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Palestine, Turkmenistan, Lebanon, Iran, Ghana, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya and Oman have been trained in Pakistan Naval Academy. Pakistan SSGN has also trained officers from countries like Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar and Iran.
Military technology collaboration
Pakistan is thought to have developed its atomic bomb programme with millions of dollars of contributory aid from Saudi Arabia and Libyan oil wealth.
OIC on the issue of Kashmir
Pakistan has always used OIC as a platform to gather support on the Kashmir conflict against the Republic of India. In 1969 King Hassan of Morocco invited the Government of India for the 1969 Summit in Rabat. But after then ruler Gen. Yahya Khan threatened to walk out, King Hassan requested the Indian delegates not to attend the meeting.
During the OIC 1994 Conference in Tehran, Pakistan succeeding in persuading the member’s countries to create the “OIC Contact Group on Kashmir”.
Q8. Explain the genesis and development of the Kashmir problem.
A brief history of the Kashmir conflict
The Kashmir dispute date from 1947. The partition of the India sub-continent along religious lines led to the formation of India and Pakistan. However, there remained the problem of over 650 states, run by princes, existing within the two newly independent countries.
In theory, these princely states had the option of deciding which country to join, or of remaining independent. In practice, the restive population of each province proved decisive.
The people have been fighting for freedom from British rule, and with their struggle about to bear fruit, they were not willing to let the princess fill the vacuum.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute between the Government of India, Kashmiri insurgent groups and the Government of Pakistan over control of the Kashmir region. While an inter-state dispute over Kashmir has existed between India and Pakistan since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 an internal conflict between Kashmiri insurgents and the Government of India has continued the main conflict and source of violence in the region since 2002.
India and Pakistan have fought at least three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947, 1965 and 1971 and since 1984 the two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier. India claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir and as of 2010, administers approximately 43 % of the region, including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Siachen Glacier. India’s claims are contested by Pakistan, which controls approximately 37 % of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit Baltistan.
The Indian were very insolent and rude towards Pakistan and everyone. The roots of the conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the India Government are tied to a dispute over local autonomy. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s and by 1988 many of the democratic reforms provided by the India Government had been reversed and non-violent channels for expressing discontent were limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India. In 1987, a disputed State election created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state’s legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups. In July 1988 a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency which during the 1990s escalated into the most important internal security issue in India.
The turmoil in Jammu and Kashmir has resulted in thousands of deaths but has become less deadly in recent years. There have been protesting movements in Indian Administered Kashmir since 1989. The movements were created to voice Kashmir’s disputes and grievances with the India government, specifically the Indian Military. Elections held in 2008 were generally regarded as fair by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, had a high voter turnout despite calls by militants for a boycott.
Q9. Comprehend Pakistan’s relations with the central Asian countries.
Pakistan and the Central Asian States Introduction
The Central Asian States, i.e. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, with a total population of over 60 million spread over an area of about four million square kilometres, are located on historical Silk Route. The region has adjoining borders with South Asia; West Asia, China and Russia are is of great geostrategic and politico-economic importance. Its potential is attracting the attention of extra-regional powers.
Pakistan-Central Asia relations rebased on geographical proximity, common history, religion, culture, traditions, values and destiny. Pakistan and these states can work together in matters of security, stability and development of the region.
They can collaborate in numerous areas, such as scientific and technical fields, banking, insurance, information technology, pharmaceutical industry, tourism and media. The economics of CAS and Pakistan are complementary to each other. There is cooperation in several spheres, notably, the war against terrorism, combating religious extremism and drug trafficking.
CURRENT SCENARIO OF RELATIONS BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND CENTRAL ASIAN STATES
- ECO, PAKISTAN AND Central Asian States
Pakistan and the Central Asian states are also the members of the Economic Cooperation Organization; it provides a good opportunity for the Heads of State and Government to meet. Bilateral meetings on the sidelines offer a closer focus on bilateral relations.
- Common Security Policy
There is a desire in Pakistan that the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) of the Central Asian States, which is an economic grouping, should try to assume a political role and in due course of time also aspire to the possibility of the geopolitical and geo-economic role.
ECO may help in adopting a common security policy on similar grounds as pursued by EU in the European States combating religious extremism and Terrorism.
- Trade and Economic Cooperation
Pakistan should concentrate on the economic and trade ties with the Central Asian States.
An important agreement has been concluded with Germany for a rail-rode from Hamburg to Shanghai, through Eastern Europe. Moscow, Tashkent, Kabul, Lahore, Delhi and Shanghai. This would open the rich mineral deposits of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for exploration and export by Pakistan and through the Arabian Sea again, with a new railway road from the Khyber Pass to the Russian land.
- Investing in Untapped Natural Resources of Central Asian States
Although the Central Asian States are land-locked and dependent on other regional partners for export purposes still all eyes are set on the central Asian States. The Caspian Sea in Central Asia contains the world’s largest untapped oil and gas resources. All countries in the region are getting close to the Central Asian States and they geared up their trade. Pakistan’s loans of dollar 10 to 30 million to each of the Central Asian States and its commitment to cooperate in the building of dollar 50 million hydel power station in Tajikistan are some of the many indicators of its keen wish to assist them in their economic development.
- Direct Air link
The expansion of PIA’s air network to Tashkent in Uzbekistan and Alma Ata in Kazakhstan is a major step forward in cementing ties with these two states. The PIA has finalized plans for air services to the capitals of the other three Central Asian States.
- Cooperation in Admission to OIC
Pakistan cooperated with the Central Asian States in their admission to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
- Communication Network and Media exchanges
Radio Pakistan is working on projects to strengthen its service for the Central Asian region so that the people there can be informed and educated about Pakistan in their native languages.
An expansion of Pakistan Television’s transmission facilities in Peshawar can enable it to beam its TV programmes to the entire Central Asian region, covering all of Afghanistan as well.
Media exchanges between Pakistan and the Central Asian States are at present skimpy and their canvas must be expanded rapidly.
- Establishment of Joint Economic Commission
Pakistan developed an institutionalized arrangement to promote cooperation in the economic and commercial fields. For this purpose, Joint Economic Commissions have been established with all the Central Asian States.
- Technical Assistance programme
Under Technical Assistance Program initiated in 1992-3, Pakistan provided training facilities, which are fully funded. The Program includes courses ranging from English language, banking and accountancy to diplomacy. These have contributed and closer cooperation. Pakistan wishes to keep up the momentum.
MEASURES TO IMPROVE THE RELATIONS WITH CENTRAL ASIAN STATES
Following measures and implementations will improve the ties between Pakistan and Central Asian states.
- Pakistan-An attraction of Shortest Land Route
Pakistan would enjoy the role of middle man between the SAARC, ECO and EEC and the attraction of the shortest land route to the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Black Sea would give discomfort to Russia.
- Encourage Mutual Trade
The Government of Pakistan, despite its economic difficulties, should provide more credit facilities to the Central Asian States to encourage mutual trade and setting up of stable banking channels.
- Better Port Facilities for Handling the Transit Trade
Despite their ethnic bonds with Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan, the Central Asian States can benefit more from Pakistan’s port facilities, trade and commerce with the countries in tire Southern Hemisphere.
The ports of Abadan and Bander Abbas in Iran and the Karachi port in Pakistan can handle this transit trade by expanding their facilities rapidly. The Tajib capital of Dushanbe is about 3000 kilometres from Bander Abbas in Iran and about 2200 kilometres from Karachi while the Black Sea port of Odessa for access to the Mediterranean is about 4200 kilometres away.
- Speedy Implementation of Projects
Bilaterally and through the ECO, many schemes and projects for intra-regional cooperation in trade and travel, industrial enterprises as joint ventures, banking and exchange of technology and technical know-how are rapidly emerging whose speedy implementation would be to their mutual advantage.
- Expertise in the banking system to be shared
A strong, modern banking system capable of operating internationally without dependence on or control by Moscow, is a dire need of all Central Asian States and Pakistan has the expertise and the infrastructure to assist them in this direction.
- Joint Shipping Company to be established
The landlocked Central Asian states can even set up a joint shipping company with Pakistan under the aegis of the E.C.O to handle a large part of their transit trade.
- Gwadar Port- An Asset for Pakistan and the Central Asian States
If Pakistan speeds up the development of the Gwadar port on the Balochistan coast into a large-size modern port, it can be an asset for this province as well as for the Central Asian States.
- Trade via the Land Route
Kazakhstan’s ruling leaders, who are energetically improving their relation with Beijing, have shown interest in building rail and road links with Urumchi, capital of the Chinese province of Xinjiang, and thus using the Karakorum Highway between Pakistan and China for trade via the land route.
- Cheap Air Cargo Service
A cheap and regular air cargo service between Pakistan and the Central Asian states in the need of the hour.
- Dynamic Railway Network
The Pakistan railway network, which runs Zahidan in Iran, should be linked via Iran with Turkmenistan, Pakistan and China are now working on the expansion of the Sino-Pakistan and Karakorum Highway in such a way that it will be extended to Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan will give a boost to intra-regional trade among these states.
- Pakistan to invite senior edits of newspapers of Central Asian States
Pakistan should invite senior editors of newspapers of the Central Asian to Pakistan and provide them with ample opportunities to know facts for themselves and to study Pakistan’s economic development, especially its industrialization, in the past 48 years of its independence.
- Business Encouragement backed by the Governments of Pakistan in the Central Asian States
With Governmental encouragements, Pakistani entrepreneurs can set up industrial units in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian states, especially for footwear, textiles, building materials, agro-processing, cold storage, petrochemicals, garments and pharmaceuticals.
- Cooperation Between the Universities
There is immense scope for cooperation between the Universities of Pakistan and those in the Central Asian States. Pakistan, which has a low literacy rate of 30 per cent of their population literate. It would have a salubrious effect on their relations with Pakistan for their mutual benefit.
- Improved Regional Security is to be improved
- Pakistan’s relations with the Central Asian Republics have may well progress during the past few years.
- The Trans-Afghanistan pipeline would export Turkmen gas via Afghanistan to Pakistan, from where it could reach world markets. Proponents of the project see it as a modern continuation of the Silk Road.
- The Asian Development Bank is the leading coordinating financial and technical partner.
The stabilization and steady expansion of these relations may take time and would require deft, patient and wise handling on the part of the States concerned. A time may come, perhaps sooner than expected, when Turkey, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and the six West and the Central Asian States; having a population of nearly 300 million and an area larger than that of the SAARC region, may form a Common Market.
In the meantime, Central Asia and Pakistan must keep on vigorously pursuing the peace option in Afghanistan. Mutual Pakistan-Afghanistan trade is expected to reach Rs One Billion this year.
Q10. Describe Pakistan’s relations with Saudi Arabia.
Pak Saudi relations
The bilateral relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are historically and internationally close and extremely friendly, occasionally described as constituting a special relationship.
As two of the world’s leading Islamic states as well as the power brokers in the Muslim world, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have sought to develop extensive commercial, cultural, religious and strategic relations since the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. Even today, the relationship with Saudi Arabia represents the most “important and bilateral partnership” in the current Foreign policy of Pakistan, working and seeking to develop closer bilateral ties with the Saudi Arabia, the largest country on the Arabian peninsula and host to the two holiest cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina and the destination of Muslim pilgrims from across the world.
Development of bilateral relations
Saudi Arabia and Pakistan are leading members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Saudi Arabia was one of the strongest supporters of Pakistan during Pakistan’s wars with India, especially opposing the creation of Bangladesh from Pakistan’s eastern wing in 1971. While it had supported Pakistan’s stance on the Kashmir conflict, it has since endorsed the Indo-Pakistan peace process. With Pakistan, it provided extensive financial and political support to the Taliban and the Afghan mujahidin fighting the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. During the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, Pakistan sent troops to protect the Islamic holy sites in Saudi Arabia, but strains developed when some Pakistan politicians and Gen. Mirza Aslam Baig the then chief of staff of the Pakistani army openly expressed support for Saddam Hussain regime in Iraq and its invasion of Kuwait. Along with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan were the only states to recognize Taliban rule in Afghanistan. In May 1998, Saudi Arabia was the only country that was taken in complete confidence by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Pakistan’s decision on performing an atomic test in Weapon-testing laboratories-III in the region of the Chagai Hills. After the ordered the atomic tests, Saudi Arabia, along with the United Arab Emirates, were the only countries to backed Pakistan and congratulated the country for making the “bold decision”. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia promised to supply 50,000 barrels per day of free oil to help Pakistan cope with likely economic sanctions in the aftermath.
Pakistan maintains close military ties with Saudi Arabia, providing extensive support, arms and training for the Saudi Arabian military. Fighter Pilots of the Pakistan Air Force flew aircraft of the Royal Saudi Air Force to repel an incursion from South Yemen in 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s, approximately 15,000 Pakistani soldiers were stationed in the kingdom. Saudi Arabia has negotiated the purchase of Pakistani ballistic missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Both nations have received high label delegations of scientists, government and Saudi military experts of seeking to study the development of a Saudi nuclear programme.
Cultural and economic ties
Saudi Arabia has also provided extensive religious and educational aid to Pakistan, being a major contributor to the construction of mosques and Madrassa across Pakistan, the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. Since 1947, the far-right political parties have been receiving funding for their political activities in our country. The major Pakistani city of Lyallpur was also renamed Faisalabad in honour of King Faisal in 1977. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia was awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan, the highest civilian decoration of Pakistan.
Saudi Arabia Is the largest source of petroleum for Pakistan. It also supplies extensive financial aid to Pakistan and remittance from Pakistani migrants to Saudi Arabia is also a major source of foreign currency. In recent years, both countries have exchanged high-level delegations and developed plans to expand bilateral cooperation in trade, education, real estate, tourism, information technology, communications and agriculture. Saudi Arabia is aiding the development of trade relations with Pakistan through the Gulf Cooperation Council, with which Pakistan is negotiating a free trade agreement; the volume of trade between Pakistan and GCC member states in 2006 stood at USD 11 billion.
Q11. Describe Pakistan’s role in SAARC
Pakistani’s Role In SAARC
Introduction to SAARC
South Asia is a region of enormous prosperity, growth and economic development. It has a long cultural heritage of strong bonding. This region is endowed with huge natural resources in and around. To strengthen the bonding among the people of this region. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organization of South Asian nations, founded in December 1985 by Zia ur Rehman and dedicated to economic, technological, social and cultural development emphasizing collective self-reliance. Its seven founding members are
- Sri Lanka
Meetings of heads of state are usually scheduled annually; meetings of foreign secretaries twice annually. It is headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal. The 16 states areas of cooperation are
- Agriculture and rural
- Economy and trade
- Funding mechanism
- Human resource development
- Poverty alleviation
- Social development
- Science and technology
Objectives of SAARC:
The objectives of the Association as defined in the Charter are:
- To promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life
- To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals with the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potential
- To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia
- To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems
- To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields
- To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries
- To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums
SAARC and Pakistan
The world has many examples of regional organizations making states to emerge as developed countries although they had a long history of enmities, wars and a world war. One such example is of the European Union. Similarly, the head of Bangladesh proposed an idea for regional cooperation between the countries of South Asia. Initially, Pakistan and India were two states that refused it because of their allegations and fears towards each other. Pakistan feared India’s hegemonic designs while India did not want to establish relations with Pakistan that had worked towards dividing their motherland. Later on, the proposal was materialized after much collaboration among the states.
SAFTA, South Asian free trade area has been introduced to this regional organization which is working to extend the economic relation regarding free trade areas for specific products between these countries. This year Pakistan has been nominated to head SAARC CCI after fourteen years that is headed by all the seven-member countries including Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Maldives in rotation for two years. The objective of the chamber of commerce and industry CCI is based on increasing global linkages, providing services to private sectors, working closely with the governmental organizations and promoting economic cooperation in this region.
Not only that this region can emerge as a future global power because Pakistan and India are two countries possessing nuclear capabilities as well to defend the regional security threats.
Q12. Describe Pakistan relations with America.
Through decades US-PAK relationship grew and resulted into strong alliance and partnership for bringing peace and prosperity. Pakistan always supported the US for its military and peacebuilding operations. The US always supported Pakistan in financial crisis, education standard improvement, health, security and better stability.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the USA have old historical, cultural and international relationships. The first step was taken back in 1947 on October 20th by America through establishing relationships with newly born Pakistan. Since then the USA has provided extensive economic, scientific military support to Pakistan. Pakistan has been the strongest ally of the US through every thick and thin. The relationships depend over the decades and currently, Pakistan is known as Major non-NATIO ally of the United States of America.
On the other hand, America is the second-largest supplier of military equipment and the biggest aid contributor to Pakistan. Numerous projects in past and currently are working in Pakistan to bring better quality of education, health, relief, good governance, gender-free ideology and peacebuilding activities.
The US also helped Pakistan in space technology for peaceful purposes in 1960. Sonmiani terminal was constructed in 1961 along with an airfield and launchpad. In 1962 first solid-fuel rocket called Rehbar-I was built by the Space Research Commission with close interaction with NASA. This launching made Pakistan first South Asian country and 10th country in the world for setting a rocket in space. For the next ten years from 1962 to 1972 around 200 rockets were fired from Sonmiani terminal. This was the great contribution in the prosperity of Pakistan.
Pakistan played a vital role in building relationships between the US and China in July 1971. Pakistan arranged the visit of President of USA Mr. Richard Nixon to the Peoples Republic of China. This opened a new horizon of the country to country mutual trust and bridged long term relationship.
In 1981, US and Pakistan signed a deal of US dollar 3.2 billion for economic assistance in the region to meet the development needs. During the tenure of US President Mr. Reagan, American and Pakistani officials visited each other regularly and built stronger and deeper relationships.
In the new millennium, Pakistan became a key ally with the United States. George W. Bush, the president of US admired the role of Pakistan against terrorism. In 2003, the US decreased $1 billion in debt for Pakistan as a reward for joining the war on terror. US Ambassador Nancy Powell said, “Today’s signing represents a promise kept and another milestone in our expanding partnership, the forgiveness of dollar 1 billion in bilateral debt is just one piece of a multifaced, multibillion-dollar assistance package. The new relationship between the US and Pakistan is not just about September 11, it is about the rebirth of a long-term partnership between our two counties.”
Pakistan has lost more than 40,000 lives since its alliance with the US on war against terror. Though Pakistan cannot support the US financially or technically as the US is already a most advanced country in the world, but Pakistan has given its citizens, soldiers, lands and fully dedicated support to the US to bring peace in the region. Pakistan has the most important geopolitical significance in the region for India. China, Iran and Afghanistan. Three out of four are nuclear powers and Pakistan is a key player in American efforts for improving the situation in Afghanistan.
US Congress passed a bill called Kerry-Lugar bill to provide dollar 7.5 billion to Pakistan for social causes. In February 2010, US President Barack Obama helped Pakistan to promote economic and political stability in strategically important regions where US has special security interests and provided US Dollar 3.1 billion.
US President Mr Barack Obama said encouraging words for Pakistan. In the past, we too often defined our relationship with Pakistan narrowly. Those days are over. The Pakistani people must know America will remain a strong supporter of Pakistan’s security and prosperity long after the guns have fallen silent so that the great potential of its people can be unleashed. We are committed to a partnership with Pakistan that is built on a foundation of mutual interests, mutual respect and mutual trust”.
US-Pak relations have seen significant improvement under Barack Obama. No government on earth has received more high-level attention. Mr. Barack Obama focused on greater US-PAK cooperation.
American culture has penetrated heavily in Pakistan. We are watching US-style pizzas, drive-thru, motorways, fast food chains, home deliveries, social rescue services, clothes and movies.
Pakistani representation in America also played important role in every field of life. Our brilliant brains are serving America for decades. We will keep on building such long-lasting relationships and promise to stand by each other in any case. The peace in region and prosperity of both countries is absolute on the bridge of mutual trust.
Otherworld calls US-PAK relationships as ‘strategic relations’, we believe relations purely based on trust and faith.
Q13. Discuss Pakistan’s contribution to peace keeping in the world.
Pakistan contribution towards peacekeeping
While the world celebrates 24 October as United Nations Day, we must not forget the role and sacrifices of Pakistan Army in United Nations Peacekeeping Missions all over the world. Pakistan’s commitment to the UN for promoting international peace and prosperity stems from the vision of its Founding Father, Quaid-e-Azam. Pakistan’s journey with UN Peace keeping operation began in 1960 when it deployed its first even contingent in United Nations Operations in Congo. Over the past 50 years, Pakistan has been the most significant and consistent contributor to the UN Peace keeping around the World. Pakistani peace keepers have left no stone unturned in the noble cause of helping humanity, building peace and bringing stability across the religions, under the banner of United Nations.
Pakistan’s dedication towards UN has been recognized by the fact that UN Secretary-General Mr. Ban Ki Moon himself visited Pakistan and inaugurated the Center for International Peace and Stability on 13 August 2013 and acclaimed Pakistan’s efforts in United Nations peace keeping mission. Pakistan has contributed 1, 51,505 troops till to date in 41 missions spread over 23 countries in almost all continents of the World. Pakistan has remained one of the largest Troops Contributing Countries consistently for many years. Presently, Pakistan is contributing 8247 all ranks deployed in 6 different UN Missions. In pursuance of its commitment to the noble cause of international peace and tranquillity 136 Pakistani troops including 22 Officers have given the ultimate sacrifice in different UN Missions, almost an equal number have been wounded.
The performance of Pakistani peace keepers has been acknowledged worldwide by numerous world leaders and the UN leadership. The undisputed high professional standing enjoyed by Pakistani peace keepers has given them the honour of being one of the most desired bodies of troops in each UN Peace keeping Mission. Our troops deployed in UN missions are continuously engaged in tasks like protection of civilians, providing health care and medical facilities, building roads and infrastructure and aviation support. Pakistani contingents played a significant role in normalizing the war-torn regions and countries by maintaining law and order and overseeing the successful transition of Governments through supervision of elections in Cambodia, East Timor, Haiti, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Congo etc.