Exercise

PART 1

 

Q1 Four possible options are given for each statement. Mark (ü) on the correct option.

  1. On 20th December 1971 took the oath president of Pakistan and chief martial law administrator:
  • Muhammad Khan Junejo
  • Zulfiqar Bhutto ü
  • Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
  • Benazir Bhutto

 

  1. Youme-e-Takbeer is celebrated on
  • 23rd March
  • 15th June
  • 1st May
  • 28th May ü

 

  1. In South Asia, through an Act, the Viceroy Lord Rippon implemented the system of local government in:
  • 1854
  • 1864
  • 1874
  • 1884 ü

 

  1. Zakat is deducted from the Muslim account holders at the percentage of:
  • 5 % ü
  • 3 %
  • 5 %
  • 4 %

 

  1. The incident of the world trade centre (9/11) took place in:
  • 2001 ü
  • 2003
  • 2005
  • 2007

 

  1. 33 % of the total seats of the district council is reserved for:
  • Women ü
  • Farmers
  • Minorities
  • Social workers

 

  1. The total members of the National Assembly are:
  • 322
  • 342 ü
  • 382
  • 442

 

  1. Pakistan did atomic blasts in:
  • 1993
  • 1995
  • 1998 ü
  • 2001

 

  1. The government of Benazir Bhutto started five years plan:
  • Fifth
  • Sixth
  • Seventh
  • Eighth ü

 

  1. Mian Nawaz Sharif himself inaugurated the motorway at its completion ceremony in:
  • 1998 ü
  • 1996
  • 1994
  • 1992

 

 

 

PART 2

 

Q4. Write the short answers

1.Write two duties of the union council?

Answer

The duties of union council include the security arrangements within its boundary, making the annual development programme for the area, imposing taxes at the local land and solving the cases of crimes of small nature, land and family disputes.

 

 

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  1. Why was the Washington Declaration made?

Answer

There was a clash between Pakistan and India in Kargil in May 1999. On the advice of American President Bill Clinton, Prime Nawaz Sharif visited America and signed the ceasefire pact. It was called the Washington Declaration. The nation and army showed a deep sense of despair and anger over this step.

 

 

 

  1. Why did president Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismiss the Benazir Bhutto government?

Answer

President Ghulam Ishaq Khan using the powers under section 58-2-B of the Constitution dismissed Benazir Bhutto government on the charges of corruption and dissolve the National Assembly on 6th August 1990.

 

 

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  1. Write the measures taken for women in the Musharraf government.

Answer

Women seats were reserved in the National and provincial Assemblies. They were also permitted to contest election for the general seats. Women were granted small loans from banks on easy instalments without any reference. They were recruited as traffic wardens on roads on Punjab. They were appointed directly as commissioned officers in the army.

 

 

 

  1. Under which law did America discontinue the supply of defence armaments to Pakistan?

Answer

Under Pressler Ordinance 1998, America discontinued supply of defence armaments to Pakistan.

 

 

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  1. What is meant by the Lahore Declaration?

Answer

The Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpai visited Lahore by bus with a message of goodwill. Mian Nawaz Sharif welcomed him at Wagha Border. Both leaders announced many plans to normalize mutual relations. A joint communiqué was signed which was called the Lahore Declaration.

 

 

 

  1. Why is the 1973 Constitution called the federal constitution?

Answer

Like the previous constitutions, Pakistan has been declared as a federal state. The federation of Pakistan consists of four princes Federal Capital and some tribal area which are called FATA.

 

 

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  1. What was the limit of the agricultural land which Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto fixed for the individual holding?

    Answer

The limit of land ownership irrigated by canals was fixed up to 150 acres and land irrigated by natural rains was up to 300 acres. The land beyond these limits was confiscated and distributed among farmers and peasants. By March 1976, 1.5 million acres of land was distributed to the farmers.

 

 

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  1. Under which amounts were Habib Bank and UBL privatized?

Answer

Habib Bank was sold for only Rs 22 billion and UBL was sold for only 13 billion rupees in December 2004.

 

 

 

  1. In which election was graduation made conditional for the candidates?

Answer

In the election of October 2002, for the first time in Pakistan, it was declared mandatory for a candidate to be a graduate.

 

PART 3

 

Q1. Discuss Local Government Plan 2000

Answer

Local Government Plan 2000

To establish democracy at grassroots level, the regime of General Parvez Musharraf introduced the Local Government System. This was not a new experiment in Pakistan. Ayub Khan had undertaken a similar effort in this direction by introducing the Basic Democracy System.

The new system of Local Government was installed on August 14, 2001, after holding of elections. The direct election on the non-party basis in five phases for members of Union Councils, Union Nazims and Naib Union Nazims during 2000 thru to 2001.  based on based on these direct elections, indirect elections were held in July-August 2001 for Zila Nazims and Naib Zila Nazims and also for Tehsil-Town Nazims and Naib Nazims. ,o attract people towards electoral politics, the minimum age for local government elections was lowered from 21 to 18 years. One-third seats were reserved for women.

Purpose of Local Government System

The main purpose of introducing the Local Government System was to empower the people at the grassroots level and to transfer power from the elite to the masses. This system of grassroots democracy envisaged yielding new political leaders. It was also anticipated to solve people’s problem at the local level, allow public participation in decision-making and ensure the provision of speedy justice. The essence of this system was that the Local Governments would be accountable to the citizens for all their decisions. It would enable the proactive elements of society to participate in community work, development related activities and would remove the rural-urban divide. The new Local Government plan was an effort on the part of the Military Government to lay the foundations of an authentic and enduring democracy.

The new System provided a three-tier Local Government structure

  1. The District Government
  2. The Tehsil Government
  3. The Union Administration

The District Government

The District Government consisted of the Zila Nazim and District Administration. The District Administration consisted of district offices including sub-offices at Tehsil level, who were to be responsible to the District Nazim assisted by the District Coordination Officer. The District Coordination Officer was appointed by the Provincial Government and was the coordinating head of the District Administration. The Zila Nazim was accountable to the people through the elected members of the Zila Council. A Zila Council consisted of all Union Nazims in the District, which consisted of members elected on the reserved seats. These seats were reserved for women, peasant, workers and minority community. The Zila Council had its Secretariat under the Naib Zila Nazim and had a separate budget allocation. Adequate checks and balances were introduced in the System.

Tehsil Administration

The middle tier, the Tehsil, had Tehsil Municipal Administration headed by the Tehsil Nazim. Tehsil Municipal Administration consisted of a Tehsil Nazim, Tehsil Municipal Officer, Tehsil Officers. Chief Officers and other officials of the Local Council Service and officials of the offices entrusted to the Tehsil Municipal Administration. The Tehsil Municipal Administration was entrusted with the functions of administration, finances and management of the offices of Local Government and Rural Development and numerous other subjects at the regional, Division, District, Tehsil and lower level.

Union Administration

The lower tier, the Union Administration was a corporate body covering the rural as well as urban areas across the whole District. It consists of Union Nazim, Naib Union Nazim, Naib Union Nazim and three Union Secretaries and other auxiliary staff. The Union Nazim was the head of the Union Administration and the Naib Union Nazim acted as deputy to the Union Nazim during his temporary absence. The Union Secretaries coordinated and facilitated in community development, functioning of the Union Committees and delivery of municipal services under the supervision of Union Nazim. The Government allocated Rupees 32 billion to the local Government in 2002. The funds were deposited in the account of the District Government. The District Government further distributed these funds to Tehsil and Unions. In addition to the fiscal transfers from the Province, the Local Governments were authorized to generate money from their sources by levying certain taxes, fees, user charges etc.

 

 

 

Q2. Explain the efforts made for Islamization between 1977 to 1988.]

Answer

Islamization Under General Zia-ul-Haq

When General Zia-ul-Haq took over as the Chief Martial Law Administrator on July 5, 1977. Islamization was given a new boost. General Zia-ul-Haq was a spractising Muslim who raised the slogan of Islam. In his first address to the nation, he declared that Islamic laws would be enforced and that earnest attention would be devoted towards establishing the Islamic society for which Pakistan had been created. General Zia wanted to bring the legal, social, economic and political institutors of the country in conformity with the Islamic principle, values and traditions in the light of Quran and Sunnah to enable the people of Pakistan to lead their lives in accordance to Islam. The Government of Zia-ul-Haq took  several steps to eradicate non-Islamic practices from the country. He introduced the Zakat, Ushr, Islamic Hudood and Penal Code in the country. The Government invited eminent scholars to compile laws about Islamic financing. The Zakat and Ushr ordinance to Islamize the economic system was promulgated on June 20, 1980. It covered only Islamic organizations associations and institutions. Zakat was to be deducted from bank accounts of Muslims at the rate of 2.5 per cent annually above the balance of Rupees 3,000. Ushr was levied on the yield of agricultural land in cash or kind at the rate of 10 percent of the agricultural yield annually. The Government appointed Central Provincial, District and Tehsil Zakat Committees to distribute Zakat funds to the needy, poor, orphans and widows. The Zakat was to be deducted by banks to the first day of Ramadan.

A Federal Shariah Court was established to decided cases according to the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Appeals against the Lower and High Courts were to be presented before the Shariah Court for hearing. Blasphemy of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) would now be punishable by death instead of life imprisonment. Zia-ul-Haq selected his Majlis-i-Shoora in 1980. It was to be the Islamic Parliament and act as the Parliament of Pakistan in place of the National Assembly.  Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq introduced a “Profit and Loss Sharing System” according to which an account holder was to share the loss and profit of the bank. The media was also targeted. Television especially was brought under, the Islamization campaign… news in Arabic were to be read on both television and radio, female anchorpersons were required to cover their heads, the Azan was relayed regularly on radio and television to announce the time for prayers. In the armed forces, the status of the religious teachers was raised to that of a Commission Officer. This was done to attract highly qualified individuals from the universities and religious institution to serve on such assignments.

As the governor grew further in its Islamic leanings, the number of mosques were increased. Ordinance for the sanctity of Ramadan was introduced to pay reverence to the holy month of Ramazan. The Ordinance forbade public drinking and eating during the holy month of Ramadan. A three months imprisonment and a fine of Rupees 500 were imposed for violating the Ordinance. A program to ensure the regularity of prayers called the Nizam-i-Salaat was launched by General Zia himself. The Islamic laws of Zia also included laws for women. General Zia-ul-Haq wanted to make Pakistan the citadel of Islam so that it could play an honourable and prominent role for the Islamic world. The steps taken by General Zia were in this direction and had a long-term impact; the Zakat tax introduced by General Zia still holds and so does many of the other laws.

 

 

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Q3. Explain the nuclear programme of Pakistan.

Answer

Nuclear programme of Pakistan

On May 28, 1998, Pakistan became a nuclear power when it successfully carried out five nuclear tests at Chaghi, in the province of Balochistan. This was in direct response to five nuclear explosions by India just two weeks earlier. Widely criticized by the International community, Pakistan maintains that its nuclear program is for self-defence, as deterrence against nuclear India. A former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, offered justification for Pakistan’s nuclear program when he said that if India were to produce a bomb, Pakistan would do anything it could to get one of its own. It has always been maintained by Pakistan that a nuclear threat posed to its security can neither be met with conventional means of defence, nor by external security guarantees.

India had already posed a nuclear threat against Pakistan ever since it tested a nuclear device in May 1974. At that time Pakistan had no nuclear weapons. India maintained that its nuclear program was based on their requirement to have a minimum nuclear deterrence and that it was not against any specific country.

After the tit for tat nuclear explosions, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed a resolution urging India and Pakistan to halt their nuclear weapons programs. The United States and other Westerns states imposed economic sanctions against both countries. The U.N Secretary-General Kofi Annan urged both the countries to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty which Pakistan agreed to sign if India did the same.

After the tests, both sides declared that they had completed their series of nuclear testing and both announced a moratorium on future testing. Pakistan announced the moratorium on June 11, 1998, and offered to join in new peace talks with India. Even long before these tests, Pakistan has time and again proposed for a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South East Asia.

 

 

 

Q4. Narrate the important events of Mian Nawaz Sharif government?

Answer

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif

On November 6, 1990, Nawaz Sharif was sworn in as Prime Minister of the country after his alliance. I.J.I. won the October 1990 elections. However, Nawaz Sharif could not complete his term of five years and was dismissed by the President in April 1993. He was reinstated by the superior Judiciary but had to resign along with the President in July 1993.

During his tenure as the Prime Minister, efforts were made to strengthen the industries with the help of the private sector. Projects like Ghazi Brotha and Gawadar Miniport were initiated. The land was distributed among landless peasants in Sindh. Relations with the Central Asian Muslim Republics were strengthened and E.C.O. was given a boost. In an attempt to end the Afghan crisis, the Islamabad Accord was reached between various Afghan factions. His most important contribution was economic progress despite American sanctions on Pakistan through the Pressler Amendment.

The second term of Nawaz Sharif

Pakistan Muslim League again won the elections held in February 1997, and Mian Nawaz Sharif was re-elected as Prime Minister with an overwhelming majority.

Taking advantage of his absolute majority in the National Assembly, he added a landmark in the constitutional history of Pakistan by repealing the controversial Eighth Amendment. This Thirteenth Constitutional Amendment stripped the President of his powers under Article 52 (b) of the Eighth Amendment to dismiss the Prime Minister and dissolve the National Assembly. He added another milestone to the Constitution when his Parliament adopted the anti-defection Fourteenth Amendment Bill. His development venture of the Lahore- Islamabad motorway has also been appreciated by a segment of the society, while others have criticized it for being an extravagance for a developing country.

Differences with Judiciary

   During his second tenure, his working relationship with the apex court served, and his differences with the Chief Justice came out in public. He also developed an uneasy relationship with the president Farooq Leghari who had earlier been his major political opponent. With the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment, the President was on a direct collision course with the Prime Minister. A few months later, this and the dramatic confrontation with the Judiciary, culminated in the removal of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, Sajjad Ali Shah and on December 2, 1997, the resignation of President Farooq Leghari.

On October 12, 1999, the civilian government headed by Nawaz Sharif was overthrown by a military coup. Controversy over the Kargil operation, corruption charges and the “Plane Conspiracy” case asis considered to be the main reasons for his ouster.

After an extensive trial, Nawaz Sharif was charged and found guilty in the “Plane Conspiracy” case. On request of the Saudi Royal Family, the Government of Pakistan exiled him to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

 

 

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Q5. State the important events of the Benazir Bhutto government?

Answer

Benazir Bhutto Becomes Prime Minister

In the 1998 elections, Pakistan People Party won 94 seats in the National Assembly without forming any alliance. With the cooperation of 8 M.Q.M. members and 13 members of the Federally Administered tribal Area, the P.P.P. showed a clear majority. Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was sworn in as the Prime Minister, the first woman to govern an Islamic State.

Soon after taking the oath, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto announced that the ban on Student Unions and Trade Unions would be lifted. The P.P.P Government hosted the fourth S.A.A.R.C. Summit Conference in December 1988. As a result of the Conference, Pakistan and India finalized three peace arguments.

But soon, Benazir’s Government started facing problems on the political front A.N.P deserted People Party an on November 1, 1989, a no-confidence motion was moved against the Prime Minister by the opposition Benazir was barely able to pull through with 12 votes to her advantage M.Q.M which had allied with the P.P.P. also broke away and started creating trouble in Sindh.

Serious conceptual differences arose between the P.P.P. Government and the Establishment. Less than two years later, on August 6, 1990, her Government was accused of corruption and dismissed by then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who exercised his power through the controversial Eighth Amendment of the Constitution.

Benazir Bhutto’s Regime (1988-1990)

Benazir Bhutto took the charge of the Prime Minister of Pakistan on 1 December 1988 thus becoming the first lady head of government of a Muslim country. She got the vote of confidence in the National Assembly soon after. Under the agreement, PPP nominated Ghulam Ishaq Khan its candidate for the forth coming presidential election. Consequently, he won the elections and became the President for the next term of five years.

The first step of Benazir Bhutto’s Government was to release hundreds of political prisoners who were sentenced to the various length of rigours imprisonment by the previous Martial Law government.

Similarly, cases against political exiles were withdrawn, which encouraged many of them to return to Pakistan. The government released various categories of women prisoners, old prisoners and child prisoners.

Relations with India and Afghanistan War

Benazir took the office in the crucial and penultimate decade of Cold War and closely aligned with the United States President George H.W. Bush, based on a mutual distrust of Communism although she strongly opposed United States support of Afghan Mujahidin which she labelled “America Frankenstein” during her first state visit to the United States in 1989. Benazir Bhutto’s government oversaw and witnessed the major events in the alignment of the Middle East and South Asia. On the Western front. The Soviet Union was withdrawing its combatant forces in Afghanistan and the United States Pakistan alliance had broken off with the US suspicions on Pakistani nuclear weapons in 1990. Benazir Bhutto deliberately attempted to warm the relations with neighbouring India and met with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi In 1989 where she negotiated for a trade agreement when the Indian premier paid a farewell visit to Pakistan.

Atomic weapons programme

In opposition to her conservative opponent Nawaz Sharif whose policy was to make the nuclear weapons programme benefit the economy. Benazir Bhutto took aggressive steps and decisions to modernize and expand the integrated atomic weapons programme founded and started by her father in 1972, was one of the key political-administrative figures of Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent development. During her first time, Benazir Bhutto established the separate but integrated testing programme in the atomic bomb programme, thus establishing a nuclear testing programme where the authorizations were required by the prime minister and the military leadership.

Space programme

Benazir Bhutto continued her policy to modernize and expand the space programme and as part of that policy, she launched and supervised the clandestine project integrated research programme (IRP), a missile programme which remained under Benazir Bhutto’s watch and successfully ended in 1996, also under her auspices. As part of her policy, Benazir constituted the establishment of National Development Complex and the University Observatory in Karachi University and expanded the facilities for the space research. Pakistan’s first military satellite, Badr-I was also launched under her government through China, while the second military satellite Badr-I, Pakistan became the first Muslim country to have a launched and placed a satellite in Earth’s orbit. She declared 1990 a year of space in Pakistan and conferred national awards to scientists and engineers who took participation in the development of this satellite.

1989 military scandal

In 1989, public media reported a sting operation and political scandal codename, Midnight Jackal, when former members of ISI hatched a plan to topple the Bhutto government. Midnight Jackal was a political intelligence operation launched under President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the Chief of Army Staff General Mirza Aslam Baig, and the objectives were to bribing the members of Benazir’s party. Lieutenant General Asif Nawaz had suspected the activities of Brigadier General Imtiaz Ahmad therefore, a watch cell unit was dispatched to keep an eye on the Brigadier.

Dismissal

By 1990, Benazir Bhutto had successfully lessened the role of President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in government operations as well as Khan’s importance in the military. With the following revelation of Midnight Jackal, Benazir had successfully undermined Khan’s importance in national politics and his influence in government-ruling operations on  day-to-day basis. Benazir Bhutto was thought by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan to be a young and inexperienced figure in politics, through highly educated. But Khan had miscalculated the capabilities of Bhutto who emerged as a ‘power player’ in international politics. Benazir Bhutto’s authoritative actions frustrated the President who was not taken in confidence while the decisions were made, and by 1990 the power struggle between the Prime Minister and President ensued.

The amid tales of corruption began to surface in the media in the nationalized industries and corporations which undermined the credibility of Benazir Bhutto. The unemployment and labour strikes began to take place which halted and jammed the economic wheel of the country and Benazir Bhutto was unable to solve these issues due to in a cold war with the President. In November 1990, after a long to dismiss the Bhutto government following charges of corruption, nepotism and despotism Khan soon called for new elections in 1990 where Bhutto conceded defeat.

Benazir Bhutto Regime II (1993-1996)

Though the Pakistan People’s Party won the most seats (86 seats) in the election but fell short of an outright majority, with the PML-N in second place with 73 seats in the Parliament. The PPP performed extremely well on Bhutto’s native province. Sindh and rural Punjab, while the PML-N was strongest in industrial Punjab and the largest cities such a Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi. On 19 October 1993, Benazir Bhutto was sworn as Prime Minister for second term allowing her to continue her reform initiatives.

Benazir Bhutto learned a valuable experience and lesson from the presidency of Ghulam Ishaq Khan and the presidential elections were soon after her reelection. After carefully examining the candidates, Benazir Bhutto decided to appoint Farooq Leghari as for her president, in which, Leghari swore as 8th President of Pakistan on 14th November 1993 as well as first Baloch to have become president since the country’s independence. Leghari was a political figure who was educated at Kingston University London receiving his degree in the same discipline as of Benazir Bhutto. But unlike Khan, Leghari had no political background, no experience in government running operations, and had no background understanding the civil-military relations.  The previous governments only give ministry for minority affairs as a minister of state or parliamentary secretary. J. Salik is a very popular leader among minorities and won the MNA seat by getting highest votes throughout Pakistan.

Domestic Affairs

Benazir Bhutto was Prime Minister at a time of great racial tension in Pakistan. Her approval poll rose by 38 % after she appeared and said in a private television interview after the elections: “We are unhappy with how tampered electoral lists were provided in a majority of constituencies; our voters were turned away”. The Conservatives attracted voters from religious society (MMA) whose support had collapsed. The Friday Times noted “Both of them (Nawaz and Benazir) have done so badly in the past, it will be very difficult for them to do worse now. If Bhutto’s government fails, everyone known there will be no new elections. The army will take over”. In confidential official documents, Benazir Bhutto had objected to the number of Urdu speaking class in 1993 elections, in a context that she had no Urdu-Speaking sentiment in her circle and discrimination was continued even in her government. Her stance on these issues was perceived as part of rising public disclosure which Altaf Hussain called “racism”. Due to Benazir Bhutto’s stubbornness and authorities’ actions, her political rivals gave her the nickname “Iron Lady” of Pakistan. No response was issued by Bhutto but she soon associated with the term.

Women’s issues

During her election campaign, she had promised to repeal controversial laws that curtail the rights of women in Pakistan. Bhutto was prolific and spoke forcefully against abortion, most notably at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where she accused the West of “seeking to impose adultery, abortion, intercourse education and other such matters on individuals, societies and religions which have their social ethos. “However, Bhutto was not supported by the leading women organizations, who argued that after being elected twice, none of the reforms aswas made, instead controversial laws were exercised more toughly. Therefore, in the 1997 elections, Bhutto failed to secure any support from women’s organizations and minorities also gave Bhutto the cold-shoulder when she approached them. It was not until 2006 that the Zina ordinance was finally repealed by a Presidential Ordinance issued by Parvez Musharraf in July 2006.

Bhutto was an active and founding member of the Council of Women World Leaders, a network 0f current and former prime ministers and presidents.

Economic issues

Benazir Bhutto was an economist by profession; therefore, during her terms, Benazir Bhutto had no Minister to lead the Ministry of the Treasury. Benazir Bhutto appointed herself as Treasury Minister, taking the charge of economic and financial affairs on her hand. Benazir sought to improve the country’s economy which was declining as the time was passing. Benazir disagreed with her father’s nationalization and socialist economics. Soon after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Benazir attempted to privatize major industries that were nationalized in the 1970s. Benazir Bhutto promised to end the nationalization programme and to carry out the industrialization programme by means other than the state intervention. But controversially Benazir Bhutto did not carry out the denationalization programme or liberalization of the economy during her first government. No nationalized units were privatized few economic regulations were reviewed.

Privatization and era of stagflation

During her second term, Benazir Bhutto continued to follow former prime minister Nawaz Sharif’s privatization policies, which she called a “disciplined macroeconomics policy”. After the 1993 general elections, the privatization programme of state-owned banks and utilities accelerated; more than Rs 42 billion was raised from the sale of nationalized corporations industry and another $20 billion from the foreign investment made the United States. After 1993, the country’s national economy again entered in the second period of the stagflation and more roughly began to bite the country’s financial resources and the financial capital. Bhutto’s second government found it extremely difficult to counter the second era of stagflation with Pressler amendment and the US financial and military embargo tightened its position. After a year of study, Benazir Bhutto implemented and enforced the Eighth Plan to overcome the stagflation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress.

Foreign Policy

Benazir Bhutto’s foreign policy was controversial. As for her second term, Benazir Bhutto expanded Pakistan’s relations with the rest of the world. As before like her father, Benazir Bhutto sought to strengthen the relations with social states, and Benazir Bhutto’s first visit to Libya strengthened the relations between the two countries. Benazir also thanked Muammar al-Gaddafi for his tremendous efforts and support for her father before Zulfiqar’s trial in 1977. Ties continue with Libya but deteriorated after Nawaz Sharif became prime minister in 1990 and again in 1997. In Pakistan, Gaddafi was said to be very fond of Benazir Bhutto and was a family friend of Bhutto family but disliked Nawaz Sharif due to his ties with General Zia in the 1980s.

Relations with military

During her first term, Benazir Bhutto had a strained relationship with the Pakistan Armed Forces, especially with Pakistan Army. Chief of Army Staff General Mirza Aslam Baig had cold relations with the elected prime minister and continued to undermine her authority. As for the military appointments, Benazir Bhutto refused to appoint General Baig as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, instead invited Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey to take the chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In 1988, Benazir Bhutto appointed Air Chief Marshall Hakimullah as the Chief of Air Staff and Admiral Jastural Haq as the Chief of Naval Staff. In 1988, shortly after assuming the office, Benazir Bhutto paid a visit to the Siachen region, to boost the morale of the soldiers who fought the Siachen war with India. This was the first victory of any civilian leader to any military war-zone area since the country’s independence in 1947. In 1988, Benazir appointed Major General Parvez Musharraf as Director-General of the Army Directorate-General for Military Operations and then Brigadier General Ishaq Parvez Kayani as her Military Secretary.

Policy on Taliban

The year 1906 was crucial for Benazir Bhutto’s policy on Afghanistan when Pakistan-backed extremely religious group, the Taliban, took power in Kabul in September 1996. It was during Benazir Bhutto’s rule that the Taliban gained prominence in Afghanistan and many of her government, including herself, had backed the Taliban for gaining the control of Afghanistan. She continued her father’s policy on Afghanistan taking aggressive measures to curb the anti-Pakistan sentiments in Afghanistan. During this time, many in the international community at the time, including the United States government, viewed the Taliban as a group that could stabilize Afghanistan and enable trade access to the Central Asian republics, according to author Steve Coll.

Death of a younger brother

In 1996, the Bhutto family suffered another tragedy in Sindh Province, Benazir Bhutto stronghold and political lair. Murtaza Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto’s younger brother, was controversially and publicly shot down in a police encounter in Karachi. Since 1989, Murtaza and Benazir had a series of disagreements on formulating the Pakistan People Party’s policies and Murtaza’s opposition towards Benazir’s operations against the Urdu-speaking class. Murtaza also developed serious disagreement with Benazir’s spouse Asif Ali Zardari and unsuccessfully attempted to remove his influence in the government. Nusrat accused Benazir and Zardari of being responsible and vowed to pursue prosecution.

President Farooq Leghari, who dismissed the Bhutto government seven weeks after Murtaza’s death also suspected Benazir and Zardari’s involvement. Several of Pakistan’s leading newspapers alleged that Zardari wanted his brother in law out of the way because of Murtaza’s activities as head of a breakaway faction of the PPP. In all, after this incident, Benazir Bhutto lost all support from Sindh province. Public opinion later turned against her, with many believing that her spouse was involved in the murder, a claim her spouse rejected.

Dismissal

In November 1996, Bhutto’s government was dismissed by Leghari primarily because of corruption and Murtaza’s death, who used the Eighth Amendment discretionary powers to dissolve the government. Benazir was surprised when she discovered that it was not the military who had dismissed her but her own hand-picked puppet President who had used the power to dismiss her. She turned to the Supreme Court hoping for gaining Leghari’s actions unconstitutional. But the Supreme Court justified and affirmed President Leghari’s dismissal in a 6-1 ruling. Many military leaders who were close to Prime minister rather than the President, did not want Benazir Bhutto’s government to fall, as they resisted the Nawaz Sharif’s conservatism. When President Leghari, through public media discovered that General Kakar and Admiral Haq had been backing Benazir to come back in the government: President Leghari aggressively responded by dismissing the entire military leadership by bringing the pro-western democracy views but neutral military leadership that would supervise the upcoming elections. This was the move that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif did repeat in 1999 when Nawaz Sharif had disposed of General Jehangir Karamat after developing serious disagreements on the issues of national security.

 

 

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Q6. What was military coup 1999?

Answer

Causes of military coup 1999

The 1999 Pakistani coup d’état was a bloodless coup d’état in which the Pakistan Army and then Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Parvez Musharraf overthrew elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and his exciting elected government on 12 October 1999. Two days later, on 14 October 1999, Musharraf declared a state of emergency and issued a Provincial Constitutional Order.

The Supreme Court of Pakistan declared the coup to be legal but ordered that the army rule be limited to three years. Consequently, Musharraf held a national referendum on allowing himself to continue his rule, on 30 April 2002. The referendum, which Musharraf won with almost 98 % of the votes in his favour, was alleged by many, including the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, to be highly fraudulent.

After the Kargil War, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was already on bad terms with Chief of Army Staff General Parvez Musharraf. Sharif assigned blame for the political and military disaster on Musharraf and Musharraf placed the blame on Sharif. On 12 October 1999, Sharif dismissed Musharraf and nominated the ISI Director General, Lt Gen Ziauddin Butt, in the pace. The Pakistan Army used civil aviation planes to block the runway. The Pakistan Army, under directions from Lieutenants General Muzaffar Usmani, seized the control tower and allowed the plane to land. After this, troops took control of the state-run television station in Islamabad, encircled the Prime Minister House, gained control of international airports, and cut international phone lines.

On 14 October 1999, Musharraf declared a state of emergency and issued a Provincial Constitutional order. These designated Musharraf as Chief Executive suspended the federal and provincial Parliaments and suspended the Constitution although they left Muhammad Rafiq Tarar in office as President.

 

 

 

Q7. Describe the important aspects of the 1973 constitution?

Answer

1973 Constitution of Pakistan

On 7th April 1972, the national assembly of Pakistan appointed a committee to prepare a draft of the permanent constitution of Pakistan. A bill to provide a constitution was introduced by the committee in the Assembly on February 2, 1973. The Assembly passed the bill on 10 April 1973 and at last, the constitution came into force on 14th August 1973.

The present constitution (1973) provides for the protection and preservation of the Islamic Concept of life. It also attempts to impose and implement the basic teachings of Islam.

Islamic Provisions of 1973 Constitution

The following are the Islamic provisions of the 1973 constitution based on the principles of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Official Name

Pakistan shall be known as “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.

State Religion

Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan

Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people of Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah.

Definition of a Muslim

The constitution also defines a Muslim. A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah and the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)as the last prophet of Allah has described as a Muslim.

Islamic Way of Life

Step shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives following the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam.

Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils

The state shall take necessary steps for the prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and shall prevent prostitution, gambling and taking injurious drugs, printing, publication, circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements.

Teachings of the Holy Quran

The state shall try to make the teachings of the Holy Quran and Islamic Studies compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.

Strengthen the bond with the Muslim World

The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries to promote Islamic unity.

Error Free Publication of Quran

The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran

Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology

The Federal and Provincial Ministers, the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take the oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology.

Ahmadi’s/Qadiani’s A Non-Muslim Minority

According to the second amendment of the 1973 constitution, the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves “Ahmadi’s” were declared as Non-Muslim minority.

 

 

 

Q8. Explain the following

  • Jihad-e-Afghanistan
  • Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Answer

  • Afghan Jihad

The soviet war in Afghanistan lasted nine years from December 1979 to February 1989, Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the Mujahedeen, mostly composed of two alliances- the Peshawar Seven and the Tehran Eight. The Peshawar Seven insurgents received military training in neighbouring Pakistan and China, as well as weapons and billions of dollars from the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. The Shia groups of Tehran Eight alliance received support from the Islamic Republic of Iran. The decade-long war resulted in millions of Afghans fleeing their country, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. Hundreds of thousands of Afghan civilians were killed in addition to the rebels in the war.

The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on December 24, 1979, under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. The final troop withdraw started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989, under the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the “Soviet Union’s Vietnam War” on the “Bear Trap”.

     The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was formed after the Saur Revolution on April 27, 1978. The government was one with a pro-poor, pro-farmer and socialistic agenda. It had close relations with the Soviet Union. On December 5, 1978, a friendship treaty was signed between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan. On July 3, 1979, United States President Jimmy Carter signed the first directive for covert financial aid to the opponents of the pro-soviet regime in Kabul.

Russian military involvement in Afghanistan has a long history, going back to Tsarish expansions in the so-called “Great Game” between Russia and Britain. This began in the 19th century with such events as the Panjdeh incident, a military skirmish that occurred in 1885 when Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus River around an oasis at Panjdeh. This interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1995 and 1978.

In February 1979, the Islamic Revolution ousted the American-backed Shah from Afghanistan’s neighbour Iran. The United States Ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, was kidnapped by Setami Milli militants and was later killed during an assault carried out by the Afghan police, assisted by Soviet advisers. The death of the U.S. Ambassador led to a major degradation in Afghanistan-United States relations.

The United States then deployed twenty ships to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea including two aircraft carriers, and there was a constant stream of threats of warfare between the US and Iran.

March 1979 marked the signing of the US-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt. The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as a major advantage for the United States. One Soviet newspaper stated that Egypt and Israel were now “gendarmes of the Pentagon”, The Soviets viewed the treaty not only as a peace agreement between their erstwhile allies in Egypt and the U.S.- supported Israelis but also as a military pact. al, the U.S sold more than 5000 missiles to Saudi Arabia and also supplied the Royalist rebels in the North Yemen Civil War against the Nasserist government. Also, the Soviet Union’s previously strong relations with Iraq had recently sourced. In June 1978, Iraq began entering into friendlier relations with the Western world and buying French and Italian-made weapons, though the vast majority still cam from the Soviet Union, its Warsaw Pact allies, and China.

Soviet Intervention

On October 31, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet premier Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other circular equipment. Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were served, isolating the capital. With a deteriorating security situation, large numbers of Soviet Airborne Forces joined stationed ground troops and began to land in Kabul on December 25. Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats. According to Colonel-General Tukharinov and Merimsky, Amin was fully informed of the military movements, having requested Soviet military assistance to northern Afghanistan on December 17. His brother and General Dmitry Chiangov met with the commander of the 40th Army before Soviet troops entered the country, to work out initial routes and locations for Soviet troops.

On December 27, 1979, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB and GRU special officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Groups, occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target- the Tajbeg Presidential Palace.

  • Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto reforms

The Age of Reforms

                      Mr Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in his very first speech on the night of 20 December 1971, declared that he would introduce various reforms and would come down with a heavy hand on corruption: his declared objective being to put the social and economic system right. The reforms introduced by the People’s Government reflect a radical change in respect to the organization of the social and economic systems.

  1. Land Reforms

                 The Land Reforms of 1972 have restricted the individual holdings of 150 acres of irrigated and 300 acres of un-irrigated land. The excessive landholding was taken over by without paying compensation. Due to these measures, agricultural land resumed thus far is over 800,000 acres.

  1. Labour Reforms

Comprehensive labour reforms were introduced by the Government in July 1972 and further elaborated and enlarged in August 1972 after threadbare discussions and analysis at a Tripartite Labor Conference at Islamabad.

They guarantee to the workers their long-overdue fundamental rights of freedom of association and collective bargaining, and assurance of greater security of service; representation in management, group-insurance, old age pension, free education for children and housing and medical facilities. These laws are now also operative in the centrally Administered Tribal Areas. These reforms have paved the way for a new workable relationship between the employers and employees for the future.

  1. Industrial and Corporate Reforms

Ten basic industries were immediately taken over by the Government. These include iron and steel, basic metal industries, heavy engineering, heavy electrical industries, petrochemical industries, cement industries, public utilities and power generation, transformation and distribution, gas and oil refineries.

  1. Economic Reforms Order

An Economic Reforms Order promulgated in January 1972 removed the Boards of Director and managing Agencies of 20 big industries. A little later 11 industrial units were added to the list, very recently, to avoid hardship and suffering to the common man, the Government has taken over the vegetable oil industry. At present only about 18 per cent of industries are under the public sector. There is thus still greater scope for the private sector to participate and expand the national economy.

  1. Banking Reforms

The primary aim of the Banking Reforms is to subject the commercial banks to an elaborate system of social control. Specially they aim at bringing about equitable distribution of bank credit and also ensure greater social accountability. To achieve this goal, a National Credit Consultative Committee was formed which formulated a Rs 1,560 million bank credit plan for the private sector in respect of small loans for low-cost housing and advances for agricultural production.

  1. Exchange Reforms

                            Since 1959 multiple rates of exchange in the shape of Bonus Vouchers Scheme had been followed in the country on account of which the industrial sector thrived, whilst the common man suffered. The Exchange Reforms announced in May 1972 brought realism to the external value of our currency and also made it impossible for big business to obtain unearned income from foreign exchange. Pakistani travellers and pilgrims have also benefited from this and in 1972, 80,000 pilgrims performed Hajj. Above All, Pakistan earned 33 million dollars in foreign exchange with the result that her balance of payments has shown remarkable signs of improvement.

  1. Education Reforms

On 15 March 1972, the New Education Reforms were announced. They envisage universal and free education up to class (x) throughout the country in three phases, under this scheme all educational institutions are to be nationalized. These institutions are now open to gifted students from all over the country without regard to their financial status and social background. So far about 400 colleges and several schools have been nationalized in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. The college teachers have also been given a respectable position in society.

  1. Health Reforms

This was the most neglected sector independence. No health scheme could succeed because the common man did not have the means to meet the cost of drugs. To obviate this, it was necessary as a first step to make medicines available within the reach of the common man by bringing down the prices and rationalizing their means. To achieve this goal, an act called the Drug act, 1972 was enacted which prohibited the manufacture and import of any drugs under brand names after 23 December 1972 and their sale after 31 March 1973.

  1. Law Reforms

In a historic declaration bringing to an end, the notorious and outdated British system conferring on District officers, the power of both judiciary and executive Mr Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto announced the separation of the judiciary from the executive. Under these reforms the legal procedures have been simplifying, rights and duties have been clearly defined and criminal litigation made more liberal which meet the long-felt needs and cherished desires of the people.

 

 

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